This county is located in the centre of BiH, just north-west of Sarajevo. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the population of this municipality was 17,266, of which 75.6 per cent were Muslims, 12.3 per cent were Serbs, 7.1 per cent were described as «other», and 5 per cent were Croatians.
Breza Camp: *1047 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to one report, three young women from Ilijas and Visoko were captured by 10 Bosnian Muslims *1048 on 26 May 1992, and taken to an unspecified location in Breza.
Initially, they were detained in a basement room of a facility containing small windows. It was reportedly cold, damp, and dirty.
According to the report, upon the women's arrival their captors began to rape them. The women were repeatedly raped at this location where their detention lasted two days. *1049
The victims were then transferred to another room in a different building, apparently a part of the same camp, wherein five other women were interned. Conditions in the new location were almost as bleak. There was a bathroom, but the women were not permitted to shower or bathe. *1050 They were permitted to use the washbasin, on occasion, but only for very brief periods. They were fed pieces of moldy bread or macaroni, some leftovers and soup. The women were never able to speak to one another as there was always a guard present. *1051
In the new location, the women were reportedly raped by as many as 20 men at a time, one after another. When the women fainted from the abuse, their captors simply doused them with water to revive them and continued the raping. *1052
The women remained in the room the majority of the time except on those occasions when they were taken out to watch the male prisoners being beaten or killed. *1053 According to the report, the mistreatment of the men consisted of beatings, drowning, or the «tearing» of their bodies «bit by bit». *1054
On one occasion, they tried to make a father rape his 17 year old daughter. Both father and daughter were beaten when they refused to obey. When the Muslims put a knife to the father's throat, he relented. *1055
According to the witness, the male Serb inmates were subjected to forced labour. They were frequently taken to construction sites and made to dig. *1056 The male workers were of all ages, there were even children among them, some as young as five. *1057 When the men were beaten, the women were brought to watch. When the women were raped, the men were reportedly also made to watch. *1058
Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in a factory in Breza. The ICRC first visited the camp on 11 November 1993. *1059 Information regarding the operation or control of the facility was not provided.
Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the military prison in Breza. The ICRC first visited the camp on 27 November 1992. *1060 Information regarding the operation or control of the facility was not provided.
Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in the military prison in Breza. The ICRC first visited the camp on 3 March 1993. *1061 Information regarding the operation or control of the facility was not provided.
The municipality of Bugojno is located in the west-central section of BiH. According to the 1991 census, it had a population of 46,843 prior to the war. Muslims comprised the majority of the population at 47.1 per cent, Croats comprised 44.1 per cent, Serbs were 18.9 per cent, and 4.9 per cent were described as «other». One source reported that 10,000 eastern BiH refugees and several thousand refugees from Jajce arrived in Bugojno before the summer of 1993, the majority of which were Bosnian Muslims. Between 18 July and 22 July 1993, the BiH Army established control over the city of Bugojno. All HVO (Bosnian Croatian Defence Council) troops were disarmed at that time. *1062
There are reports of independently verified Muslim controlled camps in Bugojno where Croatian prisoners are being held. *1063 According to one report, 2,500 Croatian civilians and 750 members of the HVO were imprisoned in several concentration camps in the county of Bugojno. *1064 This source did not provide the exact location or identity of any of the reported camps. There was one report of a Bosnian Croat and Muslim controlled camp where Serbian prisoners were being held. *1065
BiH Hospital Bugojno: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) The town of Bugojno is located in the centre of the county of Bugojno. On 6 August 1993, UN forces reportedly visited five Croatian prisoners held in the BiH hospital in Bugojno. They observed that the prisoners had been beaten on their backs and that one had died as a result of the beatings. *1066
Bugojno Brothel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) One report indicated that a Muslim and Croat controlled brothel exists in the town of Bugojno, but did not specify the location within the city. *1067 According to this source, Serbian women are being forcibly held and subjected to repeated sexual abuse. Those who become pregnant as a result of the rapes are held captive at the brothel until they are five months pregnant, and if released, are prohibited from leaving their homes to prevent them from getting an abortion. According to this source, members of Muslim and Croatian units who are infected with the AIDS virus or other communicable diseases are deliberately brought to the brothels to rape the Serbian women. It was reported that 12 year-old girls have been raped at this brothel. *1068
The 1st Krajina Corps in Banja Luka reported that Serbian women of all ages were imprisoned and subjected to rape in private prisons belonging to several Bosnian Muslims. *1069
Iskra Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) The main detention centre in the city of Bugojno was reportedly located at the Iskra Stadium. *1070 According to one source the camp is under the control of the BiH Army. Three hundred twenty prisoners were held at Iskra at its «peak» during the summer of 1993. *1071 During this time 19 prisoners allegedly died or were killed at the camp. One hundred fifty prisoners were reportedly released before August 1993 due to a shortage of food. *1072
The ICRC reportedly visited the Iskra camp and interviewed prisoners in preparation for a possible exchange. The report did not provide the exact date of the visit, but it is believed to have occurred between August and November 1993. As of November 1993, 150 prisoners were still being held at the camp, and no prisoner exchange had been reported. *1073
According to one report, on 20 September there were 300 civilians held prisoner in the Sports Stadium in the city of Bugojno. *1074 As of 23 August 1993, the Bosnian civil police in Bugojno continued to detain an unknown number of HVO civil police. According to this source, some of the prisoners were transferred to the Sports Stadium and the primary school. *1075
Bugojno Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) As of 23 August 1993, the Bosnian civil police in Bugojno continued to detain an unknown number of HVO civil police. According to this source, some of the prisoners were transferred to the Sports Stadium and the primary school. *1076
According to one report, members of the ICRC visited a detention facility at a school in Bugojno on 7 September 1993. The report was, however, silent as to the conditions existing at this facility as well as the duration of its existence. *1077
Prusac Detention Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) It has been reported that the Prusac Detention Centre is located just outside the city of Bugojno. According to one source, 15 disarmed HVO (Bosnian Croatian Defence Council) soldiers were imprisoned at Prusac from 18 July- 23 July 1993. Several of the prisoners were released and allowed to return to their homes, and the rest of the prisoners were transferred to a detention centre at Iskra Stadium. *1078
Another source reported that UN troops discovered the camp on 10 August 1993. At that time, approximately 40 HVO soldiers were imprisoned in the camp. The prisoners were reportedly well treated, and family members were allowed to visit the camp. *1079
Privredna Banka Building Basement: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) According to one report, a temporary detention facility for disarmed HVO soldiers was set up in the Privredna Banka Building in the city of Bugojno during the summer of 1993. At the end of the summer, prisoners held here were either released or transferred to the camp at Iskra Stadium. No other information concerning the camp was provided by the report. *1080
Kalin Motel: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It was alleged that a brothel is located at Ravno Rostovo in the county of Bugojno. One report stated that the brothel was Muslim-controlled and the women detained there were Croatian. *1081 No other information concerning the brothel was provided.
Rostovo Ski Centre: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to a report compiled in 1992, 150 Serbian prisoners were held at the ski centre, and 30 of those prisoners were reportedly Serbian women. *1082 This camp may be the same as the Kalin Motel brothel located at Ravno Rostovo. *1083
House of Relja Lukic: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) According to one source, the home of Relja Lukic, a Serb allegedly killed by Muslim or Croat forces, was used as a concentration camp for 50 Serbian prisoners. *1084 One report estimated that 15 Serbian women were being held at this house. *1085 The exact location of the camp within Bugojno was not provided. The report indicated that either the Army of BiH or the Army of the Republic of Croatia was in control of the camp. *1086
Slavko Rodic Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The Commission has received a report of a concentration camp controlled by the Army of the BiH or the Army of the Republic of Croatia, located in the Slavko Rodic Factory. There are reportedly 700 Serbian prisoners being held at the factory. *1087 According to one report, the ICRC visited a detention facility established at a factory in Bugojno on 28 September 1993. No information was provided regarding numbers of detainees or the conditions then existing at the prison. *1088
Bugojno Gymnasium: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to a report compiled in 1992, approximately 200 Serbians are being held prisoner in the Bugojno Gymnasium building. *1089
Coal Mine-Village of Bracenica: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to a report compiled in 1992, 250 Serbian prisoners were reportedly being held in a coal mine in Bracenica. *1090
This county is located in the centre of BiH, surrounded by Zenica, Vitez, Fojnica and Kakanj. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, Busovaca's population was 18,883, of which 48.1 per cent were Croats, 44.9 per cent were Muslims, 3.4 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 3.6 per cent were described as «other».
Kaonik Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) The only detention centre of note in Busovaca is the Kaonik Prison. *1091 Busovaca is controlled by Croatian forces and the Kaonik Prison which is run by the HVO, is under the jurisdiction of the military court in Travnik. *1092 Most of the information concerning this prison was provided to ECMM officials by the Director of the Kaonik Prison, Zlatko Aleksovski. *1093 This facility is the military prison for the whole region of Central Bosnia and it apparently served this function before the outbreak of hostilities. Muslims arrested during the conflict are the charge of the Busovaca and Vitez HVO. *1094 It is an open question how long the prison has been in operation or whether the facility is still in operation.
On 15 May 1993, the prison held 79 military and civilian Muslim prisoners; neither women nor children were detained here. *1095 On 19 June 1993, the ECMM secured the release of 31 Muslim prisoner from Kaonik Prison. *1096 These prisoners were probably civilians. Soldiers that are detained are POWs, while the civilians are purportedly detained for their own protection. *1097 The Director claims that the ICRC visits the prison regularly and that the ICRC is informed when additional prisoners arrive.
The Director outlined several factors affecting the quality of prison life. First, there is a lack of food for prisoners. Second, there is a lack of security at the prison because most of the prison staff was mobilized and taken to the front lines. Third, the Director claims that he is compelled by the HVO brigade commanders to put the prisoners to work (he is aware that this is a violation of the Geneva Conventions). Prisoners made statements to the ECMM to the effect that they were treated well and that they had no complaints about the conditions there. *1098
There are no explicit allegations of mistreatment of prisoners. However, there are indications in the report that prison guards and Busovaca residents would sometimes drink too much and abuse the Muslim prisoners. The Director claimed that is was difficult to restrain those abusing Muslim prisoners, in light of the fact that prison guards do not usually carry weapons. *1099 The only other mistreatment alleged concerns the use of prisoners to dig trenches for military defence purposes. *1100 The ICRC has attempted to intervene with local military officials on behalf of the prisoners to resolve this question.
The municipality of Cajnice is situated in south-eastern Bosnia. It borders Montenegro to the south and Gorazde and Rudo to its north and east. The 1991 Yugoslav census reports that the population of Cajnice was 8,919. A translation of that figure reveals that 52.9 per cent were Serbs, 44.9 per cent were Muslim, .1 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 2.1 per cent were described as «other».
Allegedly, four detention facilities were located in Cajnice. Each facility reportedly was controlled by Serbian or Bosnian Serb forces, and the majority, if not all of the prisoners, were Muslims. Reports indicate that at least 83 people have been detained at these sites.
Elementary School in Cajnice: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Serbian forces allegedly used the elementary school in Cajnice as a «bordello», where several Muslim women were imprisoned and raped daily. *1101
Mostina Hunting Lodge: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Austrian Mission and the US Mission.) The Mostina hunting lodge, also described as a hotel, was located in the forest between Cajnice and Metaljka. *1102 Reports indicate that Serbian forces controlled the Mostina hunting lodge and used it to detain Muslims. *1103 One report states 50 Muslim men were held in the lodge. *1104 Another report states that Serbian forces took 40 people to the camp, and ordered them to cut trees for the firm named Stakorina. *1105 Following their work, it is unclear whether they were taken from the camp to another location. *1106 Consequently, these reports may describe the same prisoners.
Additionally, a Bosnian Muslim from reported that a Serb from the village of Stakorina entered the lodge at about 5:00 p.m. and opened fire on the prisoners. *1107 The firing reportedly lasted for 10 minutes; *1108 however, the evidence does not state how many prisoners were killed or wounded. According to another report, an identified individual and his assistants killed 34 civilians at the Mostina lodge. *1109 It is unclear whether this second report is related to the shooting incident.
Police Station in Cajnice: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) Members of the Bosnian Serb militia allegedly used a police station in Cajnice to detain several Muslim villagers. *1110 The evidence suggests that the Serbian controlled police station was used for at least several weeks to imprison Muslim villagers from Ravno and Seliste. *1111 Forces of the Bosnian Serb militia reportedly imprisoned at the police station several Muslim villagers abducted from Ravno on 16 February 1993. *1112 At least six of these detainees were held until 17 March 1993. *1113 However, about five other Muslims from the village of Seliste were still believed to be detained as of July 1993. *1114 While at the police station, members of the Bosnian Serb militia questioned and threatened the detainees. *1115 The detainees also were given little to eat, and one woman was strip searched. *1116
Shipping Container: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Mission.) There are two reports of a shipping container, or simply a container, that was used as a detention facility. *1117 One report describes the shipping container as being near Cajnice. *1118 The second report locates the container at the Mostina hunting lodge. *1119 Both reports might describe the same container and the second report might duplicate some of the evidence from the first report. It also is possible that the container was moveable or that more than one container existed.
The evidence states that the container was five or six square metres in size and that there was a barrel of petrol inside. *1120 Serbian forces controlled the container, and at least 22 people allegedly were held inside the container at one time. *1121 Several of the prisoners were Muslim; however, it is unclear whether all of the prisoners were Muslims. *1122
According to a report, Serbian forces detained a witness and then took him to a containment area where 11 others were already imprisoned. *1123 On 5 May, 10 more people were shepherded into the above-referenced containment facility. *1124 On both nights, Serbs reportedly tortured the prisoners, and on the second night, the prisoners kept fainting. *1125 The witness also reports that he was beaten by the brother of the town's Serbian Democratic Party leader. *1126 This perpetrator is allegedly responsible for breaking the witness' teeth and pushing a knife deep into his throat. *1127
Capljina is located in southern BiH, near Mostar. The total pre-war population of Capljina was 27,852, of which Croatians were a majority with 53.9 per cent, Muslims comprised 27.7 per cent, Serbians 13.5 per cent, and 4.9 per cent were described as «other». *1128
According to the ICRC, as of 1 October 1992 all of the detainees formerly held in Capljina were transferred to Mostar prison. *1129
One report indicated that, according to figures available from eye-witness sources and international humanitarian agencies, 4,000 men had been arrested in Capljina sine July 1993. HVO authorities told the Special Rapporteur's field officers that the arrests had been carried out for «security» reasons and admitted that due process had not been observed. From the information available to the Special Rapporteur it appears that only a small number of these detainees were prisoners of war. Most appear to have been arrested because they were suspected of hostility to the HVO, or to provide a pool of prisoners to exchange for Bosnian Croats held as prisoners of war, or for use on the front- line as forced labour or as «human shields» to protect the army's advance. *1130
Detention Facility, Gabela: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) The Gabela detention camp is located near Capljina. *1131 The Gabela camp was formerly used as a logistics base by the JNA. Bosnian Croat authorities allegedly operated the camp under the command of Boko Brevisic. Brevisic was reportedly an HVO military police officer.
Reports indicated that the camp was overcrowded and the inmates were physically abused and mistreated. Additionally food was scarce and facilities for personal hygiene were lacking. Many inmates reportedly suffered from malnutrition. *1132 Bosnian Croat authorities who allegedly ran the camps admitted to Helsinki Watch representatives that conditions at the camps were substandard. They blamed overcrowding as the reason for the substandard conditions. *1133
Conflicting reports of the physical description of the camp were received. There are reports that at any one time between 1,500 and 3,000 men were held in two hangars. *1134 However there also are reports that the prisoners were housed in three large storage sheds and that approximately 650 prisoners were housed in at least one of the sheds. *1135
The prisoners were allegedly fed once a day. The daily meal consisted of a small portion of rice, beans, macaroni soup, and bread. *1136 The prisoners received 650 grams of bread to be shared between 16 prisoners. *1137 When HVO forces suffered defeats the prisoners received no food. *1138
Outside observers were not allowed to visit Gabela until August, 1993. *1139 At this time the ICRC registered 1,100 inmates. *1140
Munitions Warehouse: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) Reports indicated that women were confined in an overheated metal shed that was a former munitions warehouse at an abandoned JNA barracks outside of Capljina. The camp was allegedly run by a Major of the Croatian Defence Association of the Party of Rights (HOS). Another report stated that a former JNA ammunition warehouse in Gabela, south of Capljina, was one of the main detention centres in Capljina. *1141
Dretelj Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Helsinki Watch.) The Dretelj camp is located between three and 15 kilometres outside of Capljina and is a one and a half hour drive from Mostar, opposite Pocitelj. *1142 Prior to the war, the camp was the site of JNA barracks. *1143 More recently, the location was used as a prison camp, first by Bosnian Croat HOS forces and then by the HVO. *1144
The camp was reportedly overcrowded and the inmates were physically abused. There was a lack of food and many inmates suffered from malnutrition. There was also a general lack of hygiene at this camp. Bosnian Croat authorities who allegedly ran the camp admitted to Helsinki Watch representatives that the camp conditions were substandard. They blamed overcrowding as the reason for the substandard conditions. *1145
Reports indicated that as many as 1,500 Serbs were detained here. *1146 Both men and women were imprisoned at this camp. *1147
Several women initially were housed in a two by three metre cell. After a month at the camp, all prisoners, both male and female, were placed in five separate hangers where they slept on concrete floors. *1148
Available reports suggest that one of the hangars housed approximately 400 people and another hangar--which was approximately 260 square metres--housed approximately 540 people. *1149 Some 70 women of different ages were reportedly housed in at least one other hangar. *1150
The camp's physical plant was contained under tin roofs, which became extremely hot in the warm weather months. Several prisoners died from dehydration brought on by the heat. *1151 Others were forced to drink urine to avoid dehydration. *1152
Allegedly prisoners were also detained in four tunnels, in complete darkness. The only light seen, crept in when the prisoners were fed the slice of bread and the few spoonfuls of soup that they received each day. Up to 600 people were reported to be in each of these tunnels which were only big enough to accomodate 170 people. *1153
It is possible that the treatment of the inmates was not uniform throughout the facility. Conflicting testimony concerning whether the prisoners were fed once or twice a day was received. *1154 For some, the meals consisted of rice, beans or macaroni, and one slice of bread. In some cases, the inmates' families were permitted to bring them food. Deprivation of food was reportedly also used as a form of control and punishment. For example, between 13 and 15 July 1993, sources suggest that none of the prisoners were fed, in response to losses suffered by HVO forces in Dubrave. *1155
There are reports that the inmates were regularly beaten and subjected to torture. *1156 All men were reportedly beaten with sticks, wood, rifle butts and fists upon their arrival at the camp and also during interrogations. Beatings usually occurred at night. *1157 Additionally, the prisoners were forced to engage in fisticuffs, and if the beatings were not to the guards' satisfaction, the guards would intercede, imposing severe beatings. *1158
The inmates were reportedly subjected to various forms of torture including having needles pushed under their finger and toe nails, being burned with candles and cigarettes, having their tongues impaled with knives, being forced to give guards rides on their backs, and being forced to eat grass and drink their own urine. *1159 Other prisoners were forced to lick the toilets clean. *1160 At least two prisoners were reported to have been scalped. *1161 Several others were reportedly made to wear JNA uniforms when western reporters were given access to the camp, although witnesses report that none of the inmates were combatants. *1162 During this visit, any prisoner with visible signs of abuse were hidden in separate rooms. *1163 The soldiers reportedly threatened to kill any inmate who refused to confess to foreign reporters that the reason for his imprisonment was because he was a combatant. *1164
Reports indicated that the women were also interrogated and tortured. They were allegedly beaten during interrogations. The torture included needles stuck under their finger nails and cuts to their breasts. They were reportedly raped and forced to watch the soldiers beat the men. *1165
The inmates were also subjected to a variety of sexual abuses. Women, at least for a period of time, were raped daily by groups of men and were also forced to engage in same-sex sexual intercourse. *1166 The rapes were committed in front of the other prisoners, including their relatives. *1167 Reportedly, the rapes of the female detainees stopped after approximately 10 days, although the physical mistreatment of all inmates continued throughout their detention at the facility. *1168 Male detainees were forced to perform same-sex sexual acts upon one another while other prisoners watched, *1169 as well as being forced to engage in acts of necrophilia. *1170
According to one report, several prisoners managed to survive detention at this facility, *1171 although an undetermined number of prisoners were tortured and killed at Dretelj. *1172
Meanwhile, another report insists that only a few of the people detained at this location survived. *1173 This information, however, seems unlikely based upon several reports detailing the release of hundreds of prisoners. For example, in one account occurring on 10 July 1993, approximately 400 civilian men between the ages of 18 and 60 were transferred from Dretelj prison to the Rodoc detention facility in Mostar. *1174 Other prisoners were transferred to the Grebovina prison near Mostar on 17 August 1992 and ultimately released from Rodoc camp as part of a prisoner exchange. *1175
Additionally, on 28 August 1993, a group of approximately 400 prisoners were released from Dretelj and expelled to Jablanica. The sources suggest that these former prisoners were in poor physical condition resulting from the physical mistreatment and lack of food at the Dretelj camp. *1176 Outside observers were not allowed to visit Dretelj until September 1993. *1177 On 1 September 1993, 350 prisoners were released. *1178 On 6 September 1993 the ICRC registered 1,200 Muslim prisoners at this camp. *1179 The Dretelj camp reportedly was partially closed in early October, 1993 when a number of prisoners were released. *1180
The Dretelj camp was allegedly run by Mr. Anicic, the commander of the HVO military police in Capljina. *1181 His nickname was Dida. *1182 In August, 1993, another indivdiual reportedly replaced Mr. Anicic as the commander of the Dretelj camp. Allegedly conditions at the camp, particularly with regard to beatings, became much better when the new commander took over. Inmates report that this new commander tried to prevent the beatings. *1183 There was also a report that a completely different individual was the commander of the detention facility in mid-1992. *1184
Reports allegedly that the camp was operated by the HOS who handed it over to the HVO in September, 1993. The HOS guards dressed in black Ustase uniforms, carried Ustase flags and saluted the way Ustase did. They were heavily armed with machine- guns and daggers. This information is not entirely consistent with the reported change in command in August, 1993. *1185 A commander of the Croatian armed forces from Ljubuski allegedly visited the prison often. *1186
A young investigating officer, reportedly supervised interrogations at the Dretelj camp. *1187 On his order, beatings and other abuses were inflicted upon the prisoners. The abuses included the removal of tips of the inmates' fingers or the crushing of the bones in their hands. During one period, this officer allegedly believed the prisoners had become somewhat indifferent to the beatings and the camp commander then order the beatings to be stopped for a 10 day period. During this period other forms of punishment were implemented. For example, one man was forced to bark like a dog while a noose was around his neck and his captors kicked him. The man then was forced to eat a pack of cigarettes and to drink a half liter of oil. *1188
Several sources identified guards who allegedly participated in the torture reap and murder of the inmates at the detention facility. *1189
Tobacco Warehouse: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Serbian women and some men were arrested and allegedly taken to a tobacco processing station in Capljina, reportedly the headquarters of the HOS. *1190 The prisoners were subjected to torture. *1191 Reports indicated that women were raped at this camp and subjected to daily abuse. *1192 The guards placed a hot iron on at least one woman's bare flesh. The women were forced to walk naked in the street where they were called Cetnik prostitutes. *1193 Several women tried to kill themselves. The guards told one woman that she would not die until she gave birth to an «Ustasa». *1194
Several male prisoners were put in a hermetically sealed cell that was filled with tobacco dust. After a period of time, the guards entered the room and beat the men. These men were subsequently transferred to the Poduh tobacco processing plant at Metkovic and from there to several other camps. *1195
Gasnice Camp: *1196 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reportedly, on 3 August 1993 the entire remaining Muslim population of Stolac, including approximately 4,000 women, children and elderly were arrested and imprisoned at the Gasnice camp in Capljina. *1197 Although this report was provided by official sources, the veracity of this very serious allegation has not been confirmed. UN representatives attempted to verify this information, but were unsuccessful in doing so. *1198
Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at a police station in Capljina *1199 on 31 July 1992. *1200 No information was provided regarding the operation and control of this facility.
Cazin is located in the north-west corner of BiH. As of 1991, its population was 63,406, of which 97.6 per cent were Muslim and 2.4 per cent were classified as «other».
Detention Facility, Cazin: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) There are reports of a Muslim-run detention facility in Cazin, but no information regarding its exact location nor dates of existence. There are simply reports that Team Hotel of the ICRC monitored the release of 25 Serbian prisoners held by «Muslim forces» in Bihac and Cazin on 3 November 1992. *1201 These 25 prisoners were ultimately transferred to Belgrade. *1202
The ICRC then visited the camp on 11 March 1993; they found no prisoners at this time. *1203
Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at a factory in Cazin on 28 March 1992. *1204 No information was provided regarding the operation and control of this facility.
Prison/Penitentiary: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at a prison in Cazin on 13 August 1992. *1205 No information was provided regarding the operation and control of this facility.
Celinac is located approximately 12 kilometres east of Banja Luka in BiH. The territory had a pre-war population of approximately 7,000 residents, of whom 88.9 per cent were Serbs, 7.7 per cent were Muslims, and 3.4 per cent were Croats and others. *1206
In April 1992, the Serbs took affirmative steps to completely occupy the territory. *1207 They began by firing all Muslims and Croats from their jobs. *1208 This was followed by the setting of a 24-hour curfew- -the violation of which was punishable by death. *1209
The Serbs also established detention facilities to effectively manage the non-Serbian population, whom the Serbs «evaluated as individuals who have been carrying out negative activities». *1210 Detention sites included «home ghettoes», the Milos Dujic Elementary school (some 1,200 individuals were reportedly detained there), the Stanari Coal Mine and the Mramor company. *1211
«Home Ghettoes»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ECMM.) The creation of home ghettoes in the territory in Celinac was evidence of a new method employed by the Serbs to ethnically cleanse the region of non-Serbians. *1212 The non-Serbian community was small by comparison. Muslim and Croatian homes were concentrated in one area of Celinac with the majority of the population of both groups residing on two adjoining streets. *1213
On 23 July 1992, following a meeting of the Serbian War Presidency of the Municipality of Celinac, the War Presidency issued an official «Decision» regarding the management of the territory's non-Serbian citizenry. *1214 The decree pronounced that all non-Serbs were subject to a 24-hour curfew; *1215 that non-Serbs were not permitted to use telephones or any telecommunications devices; that they were not permitted contact with their neighbours; that they were not permitted to walk out of doors and not permitted in the streets, restaurants or any other public places. *1216 They were also not permitted to travel to other towns without appropriate authorization and further not permitted to communicate with relatives who were non- residents of Celinac. *1217 In effect, the non-Serbian population were prisoners in their own homes.
Occasionally the Serbs allowed the non-Serbian women to buy permission to shop for food. *1218 The only time that Muslim and Croatian men were permitted to leave their homes was to complete «the tasks of compulsory work» assigned them. *1219 When so obligated, the men were escorted by Celinac police to the locations to perform their assigned tasks. *1220 Additionally, while the men were working, masked Serbs searched the homes of non-Serbians in an effort to recover any and all possessions of firearms. *1221
There was reportedly a battle in Derventa, on or about 13 August 1992, in which several Serbians were killed. Allegedly in retaliation, the Serbs burned 20 homes in Celinac belonging to Muslims and Croats. *1222 They reportedly also threw grenades into other Muslim and Croat homes which resulted in injury to four children and two women. *1223 When one man tried to carry his wounded child out of the house, he and his child were reportedly killed by machine-gun fire. *1224 Reportedly, following this incident, Muslims and Croats attempted to leave the area, however, the Serbs would not permit their departure. Instead the Serb captors detained them in the Milos Dujic Elementary School. *1225
Milos Dujic Elementary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) According to a report issued by the United Nations, 17 Muslim homes in the village of Celinac were destroyed following accounts that local Serbian soldiers had been killed in combat. *1226 Due to the difficulty in fleeing the region, some 650 Muslims were reported to have sought refuge in the local school. *1227 The report stated that the ICRC was not permitted to visit the school despite their communicated concerns regarding possible starvation and famine suffered by Celinac Muslims. *1228 United Nations representatives visiting the area were also denied an opportunity to visit the school. *1229
In one report, some 1,200 individuals were held at the local school for seven days. Reprieve was only granted to women, who were allowed to leave the school to buy food. *1230 The report alleges that four brothers were taken away and not seen again when the Serbs learned that their fifth brother was serving in the Croatian Army. *1231
At one point the detainees allegedly demanded to see the ICRC, but the Serbs refused to accommodate their request. After approximately a week in detention, the inmates were allowed to return to their homes. *1232 Reportedly, the Serbs then permitted the ICRC to come and see the empty school. *1233 The Serbs reportedly would not allow the ICRC to distribute food to the Muslims and Croats. *1234
Stanari Coal Mine: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) A refugee from Celinac reported the existence of a detention facility at the coal mine in Stanari. *1235 The facility was allegedly operational «because coal was still available even though the Serbian men who had worked there were fighting at the front». *1236 The refugee surmised that prisoners were being used as forced labour to obtain the coal. *1237
Mramor Company: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to an unofficial report provided to the UN, a group of eight Serbian reservists forced all the Muslims from the village of Celinac into the centre of town. *1238 The women, children, and the elderly, totalling 56, were forced at gunpoint to walk back and forth across the Vrbanja River. *1239 A group of the men were detained in an «improvised» facility established at the Mramor company. *1240 No further information was given regarding the length of duration, nor the operation or control of the facility.
According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of Citluk county was 14,709. Of that number 98.9 per cent were Croats, .7 per cent were Muslims, .1 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining .3 per cent were described as «others».
Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Information from this county in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina regarding the existence of concentration camps and prison camps is rather slim. One report makes reference to the existence of a prison camp in the village of Citluk. *1241 The report states that on 15 September, *1242 a humanitarian team visited the prison and found no prisoners of war. *1243 No other information regarding location, operation or control was made available.
Gabela: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Another report indicates that on 2 July *1244, all Muslim HVO soldiers in the area of Stolac, a reportedly Muslim-dominated community, were demobilized and interned in Gabela. *1245 The report estimates that as many as 10,000-15,000 individuals may have been interned «under very difficult circumstances» at Rodoc and in Dretelj and Gabela. *1246
According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the municipality of Derventa had a population of 56,328. Of that number 40.8 per cent were Serbs, 39 per cent were Croats, 12.6 per cent were Muslims, and the remaining 7.6 per cent were described as «others».
Derventa is one among the eight municipalities which comprise the Bosanska Posavina region in northern BiH. The region is situated along the Sava river which borders the Republic of Croatia. *1247 On 11 and 12 July 1993, Serbian forces occupied Derventa, forcing thousands of Croats to flee the region and seek refuge in Bosanski Brod and Croatia. *1248
Reports suggest that the Serbian objective was to control this vital northern corridor and expel or destroy its non-Serbian citizens. *1249 Accordingly, between April and November 1992, Serbians «ethnically cleansed» Croats from Derventa and the surrounding Posavina area. *1250
Derventa Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, Derventa was the site of one of BiH's most notorious concentration camps. Several thousand individuals were noted to have passed through this camp. *1251
The inmates at this facility were reportedly subjected to severe physical abuses. Among the forms of mistreatment used by Serbian forces at this and other area camps were the summary execution and slaughter of detained civilians. *1252
Shoe Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) SDS extremists and military government personnel had reportedly organized a camp for over 100 persons of Muslim descent in the shoe factory «Sloga». The factory was located in Prnjavor near Derventa. *1253
Grain Mill: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) Another report alleges the existence of an additional camp in Prnjavor. This one was said to have been established in an abandoned grain mill. *1254 Reportedly some 50 men and 10 women were intially interned at the facility. *1255
The physical plant was only one level and reportedly surrounded by a fence and mines. The inmates were made to sleep on wooden pallets and were not permitted to wash for 60 days at a time. *1256 There were no toilets, and the detainees urinated and defecated in the common area of containment. Food was also scarce. Reportedly, one tin of beans was shared between 12 to 14 people. *1257
The report suggests that the facility was controlled by members of Seselj's military police, who, one witness recalls, conducted the interrogations. The witness identified them as having had special Cetnik cockades and were either White Eagles or White Wolves. *1258
The procedure for interrogations included beatings applied by heavy electric cable, truncheons and the flat side of swords. *1259 The reporter witnessed the death of two fellow inmates as the result of these beatings. *1260 One report states that a father and son were arrested. The captors forced the father to beat the son and vice versa. This witness also recalled that there was a paralysed man who was beaten until unconscious. *1261
Omeragici Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) One report alleges the existence of a camp in Omeragici which interns Croatians. The village of Omeragici is located just west of Derventa. The report alleges that one inmate who was granted official permission to leave was denied exit by his Serbian captors. *1262
Forced deportations from the county of Doboj were not unusual. Many village inhabitants and former camp detainees were taken by train from their previous location to Doboj and forced to migrate to Croatian/Muslim controlled territories. During their trip to Doboj, many encountered a variety of hardships at the hands of Serbian soldiers and guards.
In May 1992, the residents that remained after the Serbians took control of Grapska and Sjenina were forced to march to Doboj. Along the way, people were periodically pulled out of the column and shot. *1263
Individuals formerly held in the Sanski Most Sports Centre and Krinks Factory were loaded into freight trains and taken to Doboj. After being unloaded, the detainees were forced to walk across the bridge over the Spreca River and drop all their personal belongings and documents into the river. *1264 At the other side, the detainees were turned over to the Territorial Defence. *1265
The inhabitants of Blagaj, located in north-western BiH, were taken to Doboj in cattle cars. *1266 The trains left at 7:00 p.m. and arrived in Doboj the next morning. *1267 The cars were overcrowded and the air vents were closed. *1268 At Doboj, the people were given water. *1269 The women and children were allowed to flee to Travnik in south- central BiH. *1270 The men were sent to a detention facility at the stadium in Bosanski Novi, also located in north-western BiH. *1271
Some former detainees from the Trnopolje detention centre in north-western BiH were put on rail cars and sent to Doboj. *1272 The first convoy that left Trnopolje consisted of five cattle trucks filled with 1,800 people. *1273 During the two day trip, the detainees were not given any food. *1274 In addition, the cars did not have any ventilation. *1275 The detainees collected money which they gave to the soldiers to purchase food for the children but the soldiers never came back. *1276 In some instances, the soldiers required that a ransom be paid by a specific car of detainees to ensure that the children contained within would not be killed. *1277 At Doboj, the detainees were marched along a mined road. *1278 Then, the detainees crossed the bridge where they were met by HVO troops and Muslim soldiers. *1279
In early July, 1992, another account records Trnopolje detention centre detainees that were released and taken by cattle cars to Doboj. On the way to Doboj, soldiers stopped the train and demanded money, gold and jewelry from the detainees. Upon arrival in Doboj, the men whose ages ranged from 18 to 60 were separated from the others. The remaining detainees were told to walk over a clothing-covered bridge. Serbian soldiers used young boys as shields to stop the Croatian and Muslim gunfire in the crossing. *1280
Doboj School Gymnasium: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the New York Times and Helsinki Watch.) After villages in the Doboj region were taken over by Serbians, the men and women were separated and sent to different detention facilities. *1281 The women were taken to a school in Doboj. *1282 Between 600 and 2,000 women and girls were held at this detention centre. *1283 When the women arrived at the school, they were «classified» according to their education, financial status and appearance. *1284 The ugly and poor women disappeared. *1285
The school centre was a three story gray building with a large sports hall, connected by a corridor to the school. *1286 The school's second floor was designed to look down on the first floor from a railing. *1287 The third floor was comprised of enclosed classrooms. *1288
The female detainees were kept in the gymnasium at the school. *1289 The gymnasium was very large with a main playing floor and various smaller courts with spectators' seats and even a balcony. *1290 Women sat in all the areas. *1291
Four different types of soldiers were known to be at the camp, the local Serbian militia, the JNA, the police forces from the Knin, and members of the paramilitary group, «White Eagles». *1292
Upon arrival, the young women were taken to the gymnasium where they were physically abused. *1293 The Serbian «Cetnik» soldiers tore off the women's clothes, cut their breasts and the bellies of women who wore traditional Muslim baggy trousers. *1294 In addition, the women were raped in front of all the other detainees. *1295 Some women were shot and killed. *1296 Their bodies were left in the gymnasium where the other detainees could see them. *1297 The next day the bodies were thrown into the river. *1298
During the day, the women were forced to sit in the hall with their knees pulled up to their chests and their heads down. *1299 They were told not to look at the soldiers so that they would not be able to identify them. *1300 The women were not allowed to talk with each other. *1301 If a woman was caught talking, the soldiers would beat her, and more than the usual number of men would rape her. *1302 The women were not allowed to change their clothes or to wash themselves. *1303
The detainees were fed every two or three days. *1304 The guards would just drop the food at the entrance to the hall. *1305 The women close to the food ate and those women at the back of the hall often did not get anything. *1306
At night the women were raped by as many as 10 men. *1307 The women would be forced to have both oral and vaginal sex at the same time with the different men. *1308 Often the local Serbian soldiers wore black stockings or paint over their faces as a disguise. *1309
The women were removed from the gymnasium in groups of 40 each day. *1310 They were led to individual classrooms in the school and raped. *1311 The guards told the women they were being held to «make Cetnik babies». *1312
If the Serbian soldiers were physically unable to rape, they raped the women with guns, beat them, and urinated on them. *1313 The Serbian soldiers also brought non-Serbian male detainees to the detention centre and threatened to shoot anyone who would not rape the women detainees. *1314
The Serbs who guarded the women would accept money for the release of a detainee. *1315
Many of the women became pregnant as a result of being raped at the Doboj School Gymnasium. *1316 Pregnant women were not exchanged but were transferred to a hospital and fed well so that they could bear the soldiers' offspring. *1317
Occasionally, the daily routine of rapes would break when the Serbian paramilitaries went off to fight, leaving the women under the guard of local Serbs. *1318 When the paramilitaries came back after losing a battle, they would be particularly brutal to the women. *1319
Red Cross Refugee Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Government.) A Serbian Red Cross refugee centre was established at a high school in Doboj. *1320 In the spring of 1992, the camp contained approximately 160 Serbian refugees and 20 Muslims and Croatians. *1321 The non-Serbians at the camp were treated as prisoners. *1322 Food was denied to the non- Serbian refugees. *1323
Soldiers, in fatigues with the insignia «SMP,» would come to the camp in the evening and take the non-Serbian women to apartments in the surrounding area where the women would be repeatedly raped. *1324 Different groups of soldiers, usually four at a time, came to the camp for women every three to four days. *1325
Bare Military Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) The Bare Military Barracks/Warehouse consisted of a number of military warehouses that each held approximately 200 detainees. *1326 The detainees were primarily from the villages of Taravci, Dobruja, Oteza, and Kladari. *1327 The camp was run by Bosnian Serbs and Montenegrins, some of whom wore yellow hats with Cetnik symbols. *1328 The detainees were men and women between the ages of 30 and 55. *1329
Each structure held approximately 200 detainees. *1330 The detainees were primarily from the villages of Taravci, Dobruja, Oteza, and Kladari. *1331 The camp was run by Bosnian Serbs and Montenegrins, some of whom wore yellow hats with Cetnik symbols. *1332 The detainees were men and women between the ages of 30 and 55. *1333
At first, the detainees slept on concrete floors, but then they were eventually provided with wooden pallets. *1334 The detainees were given meager portions of bread to eat and had to dig outside for corn to have additional food. *1335 The detainees were allowed outside only from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. *1336
At night, the detainees were forced to relieve themselves inside the warehouses. *1337 In the daytime, the detainees were permitted to construct and use latrines outside the warehouses. *1338
Some former detainees describe the two Serbian camp managers as «good men». *1339 However, on weekends when they were not present, the detainees were beaten by the Serbian prisoners. *1340 The Serbian guards allowed the beatings but did not participate. *1341
In June, 1992, the Red Cross removed the women and children from this facility but left the men of military age. *1342
The men appeared to receive different treatment than the women. Serbians beat the male detainees with police batons, axe handles and the butts of rifles. *1343 The male detainees were also forced to dig shelters at the front lines for the Serbian soldiers. *1344 In addition, the detainees were forced to farm, load trucks and plunder the villages around Doboj for livestock and furniture for the Serbians. *1345
Usora Military Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The military camp was located near the Usora river and the Bosanka juice factory in Doboj. *1346 Three hangers were established at this location to house all the people from the area that were detained when Doboj was taken by the Serbians. *1347 The first hanger was for the Muslims and Croatians arrested by the military police. *1348 The second hanger was for Muslims and Croatians that were arrested by the civil police. *1349 The third hanger was for Serbians that were found to be disloyal to the occupying authority. *1350
The women detained at this camp were routinely raped. The Serbs had a man who professed to be a gynecologist at the camp to give the women medical examinations. *1351 If a woman was found to be pregnant, she was prohibited from buying release or exchange until late pregnancy. *1352 Women who did not get pregnant were beaten more often and their release was put up for ransom. *1353
Central Prison in Doboj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Canadian Mission.) The Central Prison in Doboj was used as a detention centre for men of the region. *1354 Approximately 250 detainees were confined in a room that was 16 metres by 20 metres with cement floors. *1355 The detainees had to use hand held cans for toilets. *1356 The detainees were interrogated and beaten, usually two or three times a day. *1357 Some men died from the beatings. *1358
Military Barracks at Sevarlije Kod Doboja: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) Starting in early June, 1992, approximately 300 men, women and children were detained in a basement under military barracks outside Doboj. *1359 The room was about 30 metres long and 10 metres wide. *1360
All the detainees could not sleep at the same time because the room was too small. *1361 As a result, the men slept during the day, and the women and children slept at night. *1362
The detainees were fed toast and sugar. *1363
The detainees were not allowed to leave the premises. *1364 On 18 June 1992, after 18 days, the women and children were released. *1365
SUP Building Complex: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The SUP Building was the Headquarters for the Serbian Police and Investigative Service. *1366 In the adjacent annex, the Serb police detaineed individuals that they deemed of high interest. *1367
The detainees were brought from the annex to the main building for interrogations. *1368 The detainees were subjected to torture during questioning. *1369
Poljoremont Repair Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) A warehouse built as part of a plan for extending the Poljoremont Repair Plant was converted into a detention centre. Approximately 2,000 Muslims from Doboj were detained at this location. *1370
Vila Disco Bar: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Serbs detained between 200 to 412 Muslims in a building/bar in Vila. *1371 The building was owned by Kasim Perco, a Muslim who fled during the hostilities. *1372
The detainees were interrogated and beaten. At least one detainee was beaten for six hours and stabbed with a knife. *1373
Approximately 50 detainees were removed from the camp to be used as a «living shield» by soldiers. Twenty-three of the detainees were killed. *1374
Cetvrti Juli: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Canadian Mission.) An army barracks in Doboj called Cetvrti Juli was used as an interrogation and detention centre. *1375
Stanari Mine: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Committee for Refugees.) Detainees were interned at the Stanari Mine in Doboj. *1376 They were forced to dig coal. *1377 Even the women and children detainees had to dig coal with their bare hands. *1378
All the men up to age 55 from the village of Omeragici were taken to Stanari. *1379
Kovinotehna: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Croatian and Muslims from Grapska were detained at a detention centre called «Kovinotehna». The Serbs detained an equal number of Croats and Muslims, however, the Serbs released or exchanged a majority of the Croatian detainees. The Muslim detainees were all that remained. *1380
The detainees would get one piece of bread every three days. *1381
Hospital: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility established at a hospital in Doboj on 25 June 1993. *1382 No additional information was provided regarding the operation or control of this facility.
The municipality of Donji Vakuf is located in west- central BiH, bordered by the municipalities of Bugojno, Pucarevo, Fojnica, Prozor, and Kupres. According to the 1991 census, this county had a population of 24,232. The county was predominantly Muslim and Serb, the Muslims comprising 55.3 per cent of the population and Serbs comprising 38.7 per cent, and the remaining 6 per cent were described only as «other».
Secretariat for Internal Affairs (SUP) in Donji Vakuf: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) A civilian detention facility for Bosnian Muslim males was located in the Secretariat for Internal Affairs building in the city of Donji Vakuf. The city of Donji Vakuf is located in the centre of the municipality of Donji Vakuf. In May 1992, Bosnian Serbs reportedly took control of the city of Donji Vakuf. *1383 According to one report, many Muslim residents fled the city at that time and approximately 700 Bosnian Muslims remained. This source stated that on 30 May 1992, Bosnian Serb forces arrested an unspecified number of Bosnian Muslim males. The soldiers took the prisoners to the building of the Secretariat for Internal Affairs where they were imprisoned from 30 May 1992 until 10 June 1992. *1384
The report indicated that the detention facility was operated by Bosnian Serbs but does not state whether the prison was run by military or civilian personnel. Two Bosnian Serbs, the Chief of the Police station and a Senior Inspector, were identified in connection with the administration of the facility. *1385 According to the report, several Bosnian Serb «Cetniks» reportedly visited the camps, carried out the executions, beatings and torture of prisoners. These individuals are identified in the source materials. *1386
The prisoners held at the Secretariat for Internal Affairs were Bosnian Muslim males from the city of Donji Vakuf arrested in late May 1992 when Bosnian Serbs conducted searches of all Muslim homes in the city. It was reported that during the 10 days the prisoners were held, an additional 21 Bosnian Muslim prisoners arrived at the prison. *1387 An estimated 90-100 prisoners were held at the facility between 30 May and 10 June 1992. *1388
The prisoners regarded as «intellectuals» and those prisoners who had «confessed» to committing crimes against the Serbs were transferred to Manjaca. *1389 The report did not indicate the date the transfer occurred. On 10 June 1992, five prisoners were transferred to the Vrbas-Promet detention camp located in the city of Donji Vakuf. *1390
The prisoners held at the Secretariat for Internal Affairs were subjected to interrogations and torture at the detention facility. The report indicated that several prisoners were beaten to death and others were executed. *1391
Vrbas-Promet Detention Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) The Vrbas-Promet detention camp was a civilian camp in the city of Donji Vakuf. The city of Donji Vakuf is located in the centre of the municipality of Donji Vakuf. The camp was a former warehouse that had been converted into a detention facility by the Bosnian Serbs when they took control of the city in May 1992. *1392
Male Muslim prisoners that had been held since 30 May 1992 in the building which housed the Secretariat for Internal Affairs were transferred to Vrbas-Promet on 10 June 1992. The report provides no information concerning the length of time the prisoners were held. *1393 One report received by the Commission of Experts stated that 860 prisoners were held at the camp as of October 1992. *1394
Donji Vakuf Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) According to one report, prisoners were held and beaten at the police station in the city of Donji Vakuf. *1395
The report identified two Serbian police officers responsible for the arrest and beating death of at least one Muslim woman. The first officer was identifed as a commander of the police station. *1396 The second officer was identified as the old Deputy Police Chief. *1397
The report indicated that at least one prisoner was selected for arrest based on her Muslim ethnicity and the fact that her son was in the Bosnian forces defending Sarajevo. *1398
House in Donji Vakuf: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A report submitted by an examining physician indicated that six women were detained and raped in an unidentified house in the city of Donji Vakuf. The report stated that the house was located near a gas station in the city but did not provide any other identifying information. One young woman was imprisoned in the house and raped from 27 April to 1 October 1992. *1399
The report stated that the women were travelling by bus from Donji Vakuf to Bugojno when the bus was stopped by JNA soldiers. The soldiers ordered six young women and 10 young men off the bus and took them to a house near the gas station. The source reported that these young people were detained and raped by a Serbian civilian and a JNA soldier. Both were reported to be between 28-30 years old. *1400
Warehouse on Omladinska Street: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral.) The Commission has received reports concerning the location of a camp at an unidentified warehouse somewhere on Omlad Street in the city of Donji Vakuf where 440 prisoners were reportedly being held in 1992. The reports specify neither the ethnicity of the prisoners nor that of the controlling party. *1401
The city and county of Foca are located approximately 35 miles to the south-east of Sarajevo, in BiH. The Drina River runs north to south through the middle of the county which borders FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) on the west. The city of Foca lies on the eastern bank of the Drina River. Pre-war population of the region was approximately 41,000. About 52 per cent of the population was Muslim, 45 per cent Serb, and 3 per cent were described as «other». Foca is hilly and forested. *1402
The attack on Foca began in April 1992. Apparently, members of the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) issued an ultimatum to Muslim representatives of the local area demanding an ethnic division of the region. The ultimatum rejected, violence ensued. After artillery bombardment, Serbian infantry forces moved in and quickly gained control of the town. *1403
Several individuals have been identified in the source materials as those primarily responsible for the attack upon and ethnic cleansing of Foca. *1404 One of them apparently called in additional forces from Niksic, Montenegro. Bringing the total number of Serbian forces in and around Foca to about 4,000 by the end of April. *1405
Some suspect that a Major General planned the attack, or at least served as a significant actor in the planning of the attack because many residents noticed his frequent visits to the Bosnian Serb military headquarters in Miljevina, a few kilometres west of the city, in the weeks just prior to the attack. Another individual, with the same name but unrelated to the general, was present during the apprehension of many Muslims after the Serbs gained control of the area. He was, at the time, a lieutenant colonel and former JNA officer. *1406
The Serb forces (former JNA, paramilitaries, and armed and mobilized local Serbs) quickly gained control of the area and continued their assault upon the villages of the region throughout the following months as late as July and August 1992. During this campaign, Serbian forces employed the same basic strategy. They would deliver an ultimatum. That ultimatum unmet, bombardment with artillery would commence followed by infantry and/or paramilitary assault.
A Muslim school teacher from Foca related the following account of events in the city. On 7 April 1992 it was unusually quiet. Serbian children did not go to school and Muslim children were turned away at school. A Serb nurse warned a Muslim colleague to go home as there would be an attack upon the city. On the eighth, unidentified Bosnian Serb units attacked. Military and civilian vehicles were used to block all roads into Foca. Muslims and Croats attempting entry were turned away. Some were apprehended. *1407
The attack upon the village of Jelec was typical of Serbian tactics throughout the region. Bosnian Serb soldiers blocked roads leading to Jelec and its surrounding villages on 18 April 1992. This area contained a population of about 1,200 Muslims. A Bosnian Serb delegation entered Jelec and demanded that the Muslims turn over their weapons to the military complex in Miljevina by 12 noon on 22 April. All members of the delegation were dressed in civilian clothes except one who wore a JNA uniform with the old emblem replaced by a Serbian Republic of BiH flag. *1408
The deadline passed and no weapons had been turned in. Small arms fire was heard in the hills surrounding Jelec on 23 April. Many Muslims fled. Most took up residence in nearby hills and waited to see if military action would actually occur. Between 1 and 3 May, the Serbian military bombarded the Jelec area with artillery and one unidentified military aircraft dropped bombs on various targets. On 4 May, paramilitary troops from various units arrived in seven military buses and began a systematic roundup of Muslims left in the area. These units, according to a soldier involved with the witness' apprehension, included White Eagles, the Montenegro Guard, and the Vukovar unit, commanded by Pero Elez. An unknown number of Muslims were captured and transported to detention facilities. Many found in remote areas were simply lined up and shot. *1409
According to one female witness who lived in the predominantly Serbian area of Cukovac, Foca located on the banks of the Drina, Radovan Karadsic's wife Linda and a Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) leader, Biljana Plavsic, visited the town and appeared at a rally in the stadium to congratulate the fighters, especially the White Eagles, responsible for the delivery of Foca. Although the town was occupied she reported that was not forced to leave her home immediately because it was a predominantly Serbian area.
In July, she reported, the Serbs began killing the Muslims of Cukovac. Many were allegedly killed at a «Tito» sign on a hill overlooking Foca and thrown into the Drina. Several times over a four to five day period a yellow mini-van coming from the direction of the Foca prison (KP Dom) delivered a number of men who were disposed of in like manner. This witness reported that she was later abducted and raped. She reported that she spent a number of days in a rape house. The house was owned by a man reportedly imprisoned by the Serbs in KP Dom and apparently still alive and interned there as of December 1992. *1410
Collection of non-Serbian peoples of the Foca region commenced and continued contemporaneously with the battle. In the city, uniformed Serbs, many masked, turned residents out of their homes and delivered them to various places where a screening took place. Serbian residents were advised to move to certain outlying villages for their own protection against the possibility of future fighting in the area and Muslims were transferred to various detention centres. The initial screening stations included a civil defence bunker located under a large apartment building. *1411
One witness stated that shortly after BiH declared its independence on 8 April 1992, the head of the local branch of the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) ordered that the Muslim population of the city be rounded up and deported to various camps. He claimed that Muslims and Croats were picked up 100-200 at a time and held for a few hours at local high schools before being sent to various camps. He stated that the first taken were intellectuals, city officials, and police officers. *1412
Solana: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) After these screenings, a number of Muslims were moved and held in two warehouses known as Solana because they were formerly used to store salt. As Solana filled up, Muslims intended for detention there were instead held in various houses and apartments. *1413
KP Dom: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) The primary place of detention was, and may still be, the Foca Prison, also known as Kazneno Popravni (KP) Dom (House of Criminal Rehabilitaion). *1414 The prison had been one of the largest in the former Yugoslavia with a 2,000 inmate capacity. On or about 1 April 1992, Foca prison guards allegedly set an unknown number of inmates free. All but 20 of the original inmates reportedly left the prison compound. Some time later in April, the mobilized Serbian residents of Foca took control of the prison. On or about 10 May, control was transferred to the Foca Police.
About 35 people worked at the prison in three shifts. Seven guards on duty during the day and three or four during the night. Extra guards were posted when fighting increased in the surrounding area. Most guards were prison employees, although the Muslim guards had been dismissed in early April. Prison personnel traditionally wore blue-gray uniforms and caps; after April, 1992, the cap emblem was changed from a red star to the Serbian flag.
The prison reportedly served as part of a «crisis headquarters». *1415
The Foca Prison complex reportedly consists of two four story buildings and one L-shaped one story building. All three buildings are surrounded by two walls: an inner wall 3.5 metres high and an outer wall five metres high. Four steel guardshacks are positioned on the corners of the outer wall. At night the prison grounds are well illuminated with lights affixed to the outer wall and the grounds outside the wall. The westernmost building was reportedly used for administration and interrogation. Two rooms used for interrogation were located on the ground floor. The eastern building housed the detainees. The administration and detention buildings were eight metres apart. The L-shaped building was a prison workshop. The administration and detention buildings have sloped, bricked roofs and the workshop building had a sloped aluminum roof. An inner wall separated the buildings from a courtyard that reportedly contained antipersonnel mines. *1416
One source reported that on 19 May 1992, there were 130 Muslim detainees in the Foca men's prison, and between 19 and 25 May, 400 new detainees were brought in. Inmates estimated at least 36 prisoners were killed by guards in June. Guards would typically enter a cell between 8:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m., call out inmates' names, inform them that they were to be exchanged, and take them away. These prisoners were never heard from again. *1417
Approximately 200 inmates were taken from the prison for unknown reasons in late August, most inmates believed they were killed by guards. Thirty-five prisoners were taken away on 15 September and 12 more at the end of the same month, allegedly for a prisoner exchange. Prisoners released since that time failed to locate any of these men. Prisoners on the fourth floor observed guards carrying blankets containing what seemed to be human bodies and dumping them in the Drina River. Thirty-six blankets from May to October. Muslim inmates estimated that in early August the prison held 570 inmates, and that by 13 October it held 130 detainees. *1418
Each new prisoner brought into Foca prison was interrogated and spent time in a solitary confinement cell. Periods of confinement varied but the average stay was 30 days. Some prisoners were placed in solitary before interrogation, and some afterwards. Interrogations also varied with some conducted immediately after a detainee's arrival and others conducted up to three months later. During interrogation a detainee was questioned about his political affiliation, his property holdings and the status of Muslim defence forces in his area of residence. At the end of the interrogation each detainee was required to sign a statement detailing the subjects discussed during interrogation. Personnel files, which included biographical data and circumstances of apprehension were kept on all detainees. On 30 September, Red Cross files were opened on all inmates, but the Red Cross had not visited as of April 1993. *1419
Apparently, the ICRC first visited the KP Dom on 23 June 1993 and found 70 detainees. They reportedly visited again on 4 August 1993 when they found 52 detainees. *1420
Reportedly, many Muslims who earlier fled to Serbia and Montenegro believing it was safe, were later tracked down and returned to the Foca prison. *1421
Helsinki Watch reported the stories of two men who claimed they were detained at the Foca KP Dom and not mistreated. According to one, Serbian forces arrested him and 27 other men in Foca at the end of April 1992. The Serbs told those arrested that they were being taken to a place where they would be required to make a statement. *1422
All those arrested with this man were later questioned. According to the witness, his interrogator told him that he did not know what he was supposed to ask him and that he had a paper which required an interrogation. The witness was then required to sign a document. As the man arrested walked out of the office, he reported that another guard walked into the office and asked the interrogator whether the witness had confessed. The interrogator then supposedly replied, «Did he confess to what?» The guard then reportedly said that if the special forces arrived the arrested man would confess to everything. *1423
The 28 reportedly arrested were detained at the prison four months. According to the same witness, approximately 560 men were detained in the prison throughout his detention. The number detained fluctuated depending on whether or not prisoner exchanges took place or if new inmates were brought to the prison. *1424
This witness was detained in a room with 74 others. The room was divided into quarters. The prisoners were given a place to sleep, some socks, and sponges to wash themselves. He reported that others were held in jail cells. *1425
He reported that prisoners were fed three times a day. He stated that they received cabbage, macaroni and water daily. According to this and another witness, the prisoners also received 15 decagrams of bread a day to be shared among 20 prisoners. *1426
Helsinki Watch reported the story of another witness who stated that he was placed in room number 22 with 44 other men, after which, they were individually questioned. The questions primarily concerned membership of the SDA and the number of weapons in his village. He stated that cots and blankets were provided to the prisoners and that neither he nor his son were mistreated. *1427
Both of the above men were reportedly released from the KP Dom and deported from the region on or about 30 August 1992. One of the men claimed that 250 men remained in the prison at the time of his release. *1428
Helsinki Watch included the story of another alleged prisoner of Serb forces in Foca. He reported that detainees were beaten in the prison. This individual claims that all those interrogated were also threatened. He states that for three and a half months he was held in one room. The number of prisoners in that room, he stated, gradually increased from about 30 to 75. According to this man, a police officer would come to the room in the evening and read out the names of some men who would then be taken from the room and beaten. Although he was not beaten, he claims that some were beaten severely. Some men who were taken out reportedly never returned.
The above witness was released from the Foca prison on 29 August 1992. They were to be taken to Niksic, Montenegro. On the way, Pero Elez stopped the bus and ordered it back to the prison. There, two police officers identified 20 of the prisoners and took them away. The remainder returned to the bus and left for Montenegro. *1429
Probably the same Muslim school teacher from Foca mentioned above described the murder of prisoners at the Foca Prison. *1430 Bosnian Serbs captured him and interned him in the men's prison from May to December 1992, when he was released in a prisoner exchange. *1431 Between 12 June and 20 June 1992, at least five or six prisoners were taken nightly from their cells and interrogated in the administration building opposite the detention building. Prisoners could see their fellow inmates taken into the two interrogation rooms on the ground floor of the administration building opposite and were able to see individuals from the waist up through windows looking into the two rooms. Two prisoners were taken into the interrogation rooms while the others waited outside under guard. Prisoners in the detention building heard screams for 20 minutes, after which a second pair of prisoners were brought into the two rooms.
Prisoners on the third floor of the detention facility could see over the administration building to the road and the river. They watched as guards carried blanket wrapped bundles of what appeared to be bodies to the river, where they were dumped. Guards carried such bundles to the river only after such interrogation. Those brought to interrogation were never seen again. This witness identified 13 victims. *1432
Another man reported being arrested with his son and 18 other men in his neighbourhood and taken to the KP Dom on 27 April 1992. He stated that 560 Muslim men from the Foca area were interned there. He claimed that the Serbs running the camp maintained written records and biographic files on all those interned. Interrogations reportedly focused on discovering which Muslims in town had weapons. According to this man, about four prisoners were beaten each night between midnight and 1:00 a.m. *1433
A Muslim woman from Foca reported that on 18 April 1992, she was arrested by masked men calling themselves «Cetniks». She was taken to the KP Dom and interrogated. After the interrogation, she alleged that she was beaten with a rifle butt until she bled from the mouth and ears. She then states that she was thrown into a cell holding men. A half an hour later, a Muslim man who had a bullet wound and who had been beaten on the head was thrown into the cell. Other beaten prisoners were later thrown in and she was threatened and forced to surrender her wedding ring before being eventually released. *1434
Another teacher at the school in Foca was treated well as a prisoner. Unidentified individuals from Foca frequently visited this teacher, who would then relay information to the other prisoners. For example, a Bosnian Serb soldier, a former teacher at a school in Foca, told the teacher/inmate that an identified prisoner was killed on 18 June 1992. This information was then passed along to others. *1435
Several witnesses describe bodies dumped into the Drina River and washing up on the shores of Gorazde. Many, former inmates of the KP Dom. *1436 Corpses which are believed to be those of Muslims executed in Foca prison camp were seen daily in the River Drina at Gorazde. Amongst them were children as young as seven. Corpses were frequently mutilated and carried signs of torture. There were seven to eight corpses a day as late as end of July 1992, although Serbs claimed Foca ethnically clean. *1437
Another source claimed that she and her daughter were arrested by Serbs in her house in the middle of August 1992 and taken to the KP Dom where they were both raped. She states that she was raped twice and her daughter several times. According to this witness, she and her daughter spent 10 days imprisoned at the KP Dom, 10 days «in another place» and seven days in a camp before they escaped. *1438
White Eagles surrounded the village of Kremalusa on 5 May 1992. They opened fire with mortars and machine-guns and continued firing until 6 May when they moved into the village and began to search the houses and round up the residents. A Muslim Kremalusa villager detained at the KP Dom until mid-December, 1992, when he was exchanged near Sarajevo, reported the greatest number of prisoners held there at one time was 586, all male, during the period of June to September 1992. *1439
According to this witness, interrogators wanted the names of people who possessed weapons, the location of weapons caches, and the identities of members of the Muslim Party (SDA). Interrogators also attempted to extract confessions of «crimes committed against the Serbs». Alleged torture was common and committed in the same building where interrogations took place. Each day three to five prisoners who had confessed to such crimes were removed to the Drina River, executed and dumped into the water. Prisoners had one meal a day. The meal consisted of water diluted leftovers from the guards' meals. This witness also provided a list of inmates as of December 1992. *1440
According to one of the teachers detained, there were 95 prisoners in Foca Prison on 12 December 1992. Ninety-three Muslims, one Croat, and one Slovenian journalist who had been on assignment for an unidentified French media company. *1441 However, one heard rumours that as late as May, 1993 there were 500 men still detained in the prison. *1442
A BBC reporter apparently interviewed the Deputy President of the (Serbian) Municipality of Foca, Ljubomir Todovic and a Muslim prisoner held at the KP Dom on 26 and 27 August 1993. *1443 The reporter saw KP Dom. He was not allowed to know how many prisoners were there. The Commandant was identified by name in the source materials.
According to the Deputy President, as reported:
«Check wherever you want, but during the fighting and after the fighting in Foca, there were no prisons for civilians, i.e. for women, children and other people. Only for people who were capable of fighting . . . and I haven't heard anybody saying that they have taken in women, children and old people. . . . As far as I know, none such actions took place here, because the military/government/police didn't authorise such actions. In fact the authorities were the buffer zone for the Muslim civilians here, until the Muslims decided to go.» *1444
The reporter was allowed to interview a Muslim soldier captured by Serb forces in the summer of 1993 and held at the KP Dom. Apparently, the prisoner participated in an attack upon Serb civilians in the Josanica valley. He provides no other information relating to his incarceration. *1445
Miljevina Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the National Organization for Victim Assistance.) Miljevina is a village in the Foca province, located a few kilometres to the west of the city of Foca. Bosnian Serb military headquarters were supposedly located there prior to the conflict and witnesses often referred to the Miljevina Motel as a Serb Headquarters. *1446
As in all other villages conquered by the Serb forces, Muslims were rounded up and placed in detention for various amounts of time. Reportedly, Serbs used the Miljevina jailhouse to imprison all the men of the village on 11 June 1992. *1447
A woman reported that on 6 August 1992, a Serbian police officer took her and her 11 month old son, her mother-in- law and her two children to the prison in Miljevina. Although the others were released she was held in a cell with another man and a woman. After four hours the police officer took her to another room and raped her. He then released her. *1448
On 20 June 1992, a man was imprisoned at the Miljevina jail and held for seven days and beaten after which he was used to clear mines. He was forced to drive a car in front of a convoy to clear a path or at least ensure the location of a safe path through minefields for Serb forces. He was later imprisoned at the KP Dom. *1449
On or about 18 August 1992, 20 men in uniforms of Serbian nationality arrested five men and a girl and took them to the house of Nusret Karaman. After spending a night there, they were taken to the Miljevina police station where the girl was questioned and released. The men spent 15 days at the police station when they were transferred to the KP Dom. *1450
Elementary School in Donje Zepce: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) On 16 April 1992, Serbs ambushed a truck carrying 45 soldiers committed to the defence of Foca near the village of Donje Zepce. Three Muslims were wounded; the others taken prisoner and placed in the elementary school in Donje Zepce. The wounded were taken to the Foca hospital. Eight prisoners were immediately released. Later, the Serb captors released another two Muslim prisoners because they looked exhausted. Those who remained in custody were reportedly beaten by three identified men. Upon request of the Muslim defence forces it was agreed to release the remaining prisoners on 18 April 1992. At the time of the release two prisoners were accidentally killed crossing the Muslim barricades. *1451
Foca Police Headquarters: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One man claims to have been captured by Serbian irregular forces in the village of Zubovici and detained from 14 April to 3 May 1992 when he was paroled. According to this man, two other men repeatedly interrogated him and other prisoners at police headquarters in Foca. He states that he was not maltreated but claims that a number of inmates lost weight because they were not given enough to eat. *1452
Bug/Buk Bijelo Workers Barracks/Construction Site: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) On or about 3 July 1992, some local Serbs and some Montenegrins reportedly held some women from the village of Mesaje for one night in the workers' barracks. They were interrogated about possession of weapons. *1453
Various Houses and Apartments in Foca: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) After arrest by a group of 26 Serbian soldiers claiming to be Seseljovci from Trebinje, a group of women and children were separated into four groups at the police station and taken to separate houses confiscated from Muslim owners. A soldier told one of the women that women, children and old people were being taken to these homes because they were not worth a bullet. *1454
This woman was placed in a group of 28 women and kept in a house for 27 days. The prisoners ranged in age from 12 to 60 years-old. Four to five local Serbs stood guard at all times. Soldiers came to the house day and night to select women and girls for beating and rape. Frequently, the soldiers sought mother-daughter combinations. The captors also forced some of the prisoners to drink alcohol and eat pork. Many women threw up and were then beaten for getting sick. On 18 August 1992, the women were allowed to leave on a convoy evacuating Muslims from Foca. *1455
A woman who had been imprisoned for one month at the Kalinovik High School was allegedly taken from there by two Montenegrins to a house in Foca occupied by an individual from Trnovaca. She was held there five days then taken to the Miljevina Bordello by the same two men. *1456
In Miljevina, the apartments of Zoran Samardzic and Nedzo Samardzic were reported to be places where women and girls were detained for the purpose of rape. Each holding two or three women or girls and including at least one transfer of a prisoner from Zoran's apartment to Nedzo's apartment. In fact, a number of apartments seem to have been maintained by a group of soldiers and paramilitaries led by Pero Elez. *1457
Gymnasium: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report claimed that the women and children of Miljevina were imprisoned in a gymnasium for about three days. In that time, the report alleges that all of the females between the ages of 12 and 35 were taken out every evening and raped. After three days, the women and children were taken to Gorazde and left there. *1458
Another source reported the story of a woman who claimed to have been held in a gymnasium in Foca with 30 women and children. She and her daughter were allegedly raped there, her daughter several times. After 10 days at the gymnasium the witness reported being moved to a school in Kalinovik. *1459
Foca High School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) A woman from the village of Mesaje describes the typical roundup and separation of Muslim men, women and children by Serbian forces around 15 April 1992. Taking the men to prison in Foca and leaving the women and children behind. On or about 3 July, 500 «Cetniks» surrounded the forest near Mesaje, where the remaining Muslims had fled, and killed and captured those within. Approximately 70 women and children and five old men were taken to a collection camp located in the High School in Foca. *1460
The witness describes the school as a woman's transit camp at the high school, Ahmeda Fetahovica Street, Foca-Aladja. All 70 were kept there from 3 July to 17 July 1992. All were forced forced to stay in a former classroom 10 metres by 10 metres. They were able to use mattresses and blankets left behind by Serbian soldiers who had occupied the school earlier. Toilets and water were available. The food was very bad. The first week they received no warm food. Twice a day a loaf of bread was given to 10 persons. A warm soup of potatoes or peas was occasionally received later in the day. Believed soup a mixture of leftovers from a military mess hall. The military guard consisting of two soldiers standing outside was changed every eight hours. All women between ages 15 and 45 were continuously raped by Serbian military members. *1461 This happened in other rooms at the school or outside in empty formerly Muslim homes in the town. *1462
On 8 July 1992, the source and seven other women were raped by 10 «Cetniks» in another room in the building. She resisted and therefore struck on her back with the butt of a rifle. A former acquaintance («Cetnik») interferred on her behalf and rescued her from rape and any further abuse, escorting her back to the detention room. The guards frequently raped the women they guarded. *1463
Partizan Sports Hall: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) On 17 July all those detained at the high school were transferred to the Partizan Sports Hall in the centre of Foca on Samoborska Street. *1464 There the above witness and her relatives were detained until 13 August 1992 when all were transferred by bus to Rozaj, Montenegro where they lived with local Muslim families until 9 May 1993. Almost all of the prisoners were from Mesaje with a few from Foca. They stayed in the former gym which was 15 metres by eight metres in size. They slept on the floor without mattresses or blankets. Toilets and water were available inside the building. They were unable to take a bath or shower. They had no soap or other hygienic utensils. The food situation was as bad as at the school. Children received no milk, fruit, or vegetables, and everyone was always hungry. They were forbidden to leave their billets or receive visitors. «Cetniks» continued to rape women as they did earlier at the school. *1465 As there were no other rooms available in the building, women were occasionally raped in the gym in front of all the detainees, including children, or outside the building on the meadow. Most of the time, however, women were taken out and driven in a car to empty, former Moslem, apartments or houses in town. Each time they were kept all night. On several occasions, several women were kept several days and nights at one place and raped every night by a different group of «Cetniks». *1466
As far as this witness knew, no women or children were killed at either place. Women were not tortured but were beaten if they refused sex. Often, especially at the beginning, women who resisted returned in the morning with bloody faces. Many women became pregnant. Several weeks later many aborted the foetuses in Rozaj. Three Muslim girls from Mesaje were not released on 13 August. They were forced to stay in a brothel in Foca as objects of pleasure for Serbian soldiers. These women were identified by name in the report. *1467
Velecevo Women's Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Serb forces allegedly used the Velecevo Women's Prison in Foca as a concentration camp for Muslim women. *1468 Women were reportedly held there as late as April 1993. *1469
According to one source, the prison contained approximately 500 female inmates prior to the conflict; another source indicates 50. *1470 The first source claims that younger Muslims were imprisoned with the criminals there after the Serb attack and round-up of Muslims in the area. The same source believed that most of the criminal inmates were later killed, leaving 120 females from Velecevo's original prison population surviving. *1471 The second source reported that the 50 female inmates who had been housed in the prison before April 1992 were moved to an unidentified facility in Puz on 12 April 1992. *1472
Velecevo prison is four kilometres south of the KP Dom in Foca. It is a multi-storied building surrounded by wire fencing covering an area of about 200 by 200 metres. *1473
BiH Government authorities claimed that the girls and young women held there were tortured, raped, often killed, and otherwise maltreated. *1474
Sources reported that the mobilized Serbs of Foca set up there headquarters in or next to the Velecevo Women's Prison. *1475 Radovan Karadzic said that he was unaware of any such headquarters. He also said he had not known that Velecevo was the sight of a women's prison. *1476
Miljevina Motel: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One girl describes being captured by three men dressed in camouflage uniforms with the insignia of Serbian Voluntary Guard. They brought her to a place she described as Serb headquarters at a motel in Miljevina where she spent one night. She was then taken to Ismet Basic's apartment. *1477
Ismet Basic's Apartment: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The girl mentioned above was kept in Ismet Basic's apartment from about 10 June 1992 to November 1992. After two months of detention, Pero Elez reportedly raped her. She alleges he raped her continually until he was killed in December of 1992 when she was transferred to Nedzo Samardzic's apartment. *1478
Miljevina Bordello: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Several sources described a bordello in Miljevina which could be the same place described as the Miljevina Motel or Serb Headquarters in Miljevina. *1479 According to one woman, Pero Elez was the «main Cetnik» in Miljevina. According to her, he knew everyone in the village and therefore did no harm; however, his soldiers were criminal, and among them the Montenegrins were supposedly the worst. She stated, though, that it was understood that Elez took five 12 year old girls from Kalinovik and brought them to what the witness reported as Elez's bordello in Miljevina where they were kept as concubines. *1480
Another woman describes being taken to a Nusret Karaman's house and held there six months with other young women and raped. *1481 According to another woman, the Miljevina Bordello was located in a three story white house with an orange tile roof, owned by Nusret Kareman, a Muslim who worked in Germany. The bordello was 50 metres from her window across the Bistrica River. *1482 Another woman confirmed the existence of the bordello. She, too, could see it from her home. *1483 According to another source, by 3 September 1992, the only Muslims left in Miljevina were bordello girls. *1484
Another source reported that on or about 2 September 1992, 10 girls 12 years-old or less were being held in the brothel in Miljevina. *1485
Former Prison for Underage Delinquents: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One source reported 131 Muslims held in the former prison for under-age delinquents in Foca on or about 2 September 1992. According to the report there had been as many as 600 prisoners held there in June and July of 1992. Many had purportedly died as a result of beatings and abuse. Many were allegedly shot or taken away to the mines of Miljevina, Gacko, Montenegro, Serbia or to unknown locations. *1486
Identification of Perpetrators: The perpetrators were identified by name in the source materials.
According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the county of Fojnica had a population of 16,227, of which 40.9 per cent were Croats, 49.4 per cent were Muslims, .9 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 8.8 per cent were described as «others».
Fojnica is located in the southern region of BiH, approximately 50 miles south of Sarajevo. One report received from this area described a Muslim controlled facility in or about which several Croatian soldiers and civilians are buried. *1487
According to the report, Croatian civilians are presently living and detained in the community, however the conditions of their detention were not specified. *1488
On 29 September 1993, a prisoner exchange between Fojnica and Kiseljak was arranged. Additional information regarding future prisoner of war exchanges suggested that five Croats would be released for Kiseljak and a team would be permitted to exhume the bodies of the buried Croats. *1489
Fojnica Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report alleges the existence of a camp in Fojnica. There are no details provided in the report. *1490
Fojnica School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in a school in Fojnica. The ICRC first visited the camp on 3 August 1993. *1491
The municipality of Gacko is located in south-eastern BiH, bordered by the municipalities of Bileca, Nevesinje, Kalinovik, Foca and FRY. According to the 1991 census, Gacko had a prewar population of 10,844. Serbs comprised the majority of the population at 62.4 per cent, Muslims comprised 35.3 per cent, and Croats 2.3 per cent. In 1992, 37 per cent of the region's 10,000 population was Muslim who formed the middle classes and constituted a majority inside the town of Gacko. *1492 Serbian forces began arresting young men in the Gacko area in early June and July of 1992 and began to incarcerate the civilian population in camps. Approximately 136 people were killed in the town and many were sent to a camp in Bileca. *1493 One source provided a list of all prisoners transferred from the municipality of Gacko to Bileca. *1494
According to one source, a witness from Bileca reported that over 200 refugees who had escaped from Bileca to Gacko. In Gacko, the refugees were imprisoned by commanding officers Popovic and Calasan. *1495 The report did not indicate the exact location in Gacko the refugees were held. The witness also recounted an incident in which a female prisoner was pushed while alive into a fire. *1496
According to one source, former detainees from Gacko and Bileca fled to the Dubrovnik area. One man, an employee of the thermoelectric power station of Gacko, was reportedly arrested on 1 June 1992 because of his ethnicity as a Muslim. *1497 He was imprisoned for 15 days, released, and then arrested again seven days later. He was then transferred to a camp in Bileca. *1498
Military Casern Avtovac: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) It was reported that a Serbian controlled concentration camp was located 4 miles south- east of the town of Gacko in Avtovac. *1499 One hundred and ten Bosnian Croat and Bosnian Muslim males were captured by Bosnian Serb forces and imprisoned from 1-5 June 1992 at the military casern in Avtovac. *1500 On 5 June 1992, the prisoners were transferred to a processing centre in the basement of the Samacki Hotel. *1501 It was reported that 1,000 people were held at this camp as of November 1992. *1502
A separate report described the ethnic cleansing and imprisonment of Muslim civilians in the city of Gacko in March through July 1992. *1503 A Muslim witness reported that the Serbian Army initially entered Gacko in March 1992 on the way to the front in Mostar. *1504 Local members of the «White Eagles» paramilitary group allegedly destroyed Muslim owned cafes, apartments and shops. In the middle of May the «White Eagles» began shooting into homes and making arrests. *1505
According to an eyewitness, on 1 June, Serbian soldiers arrested Muslim men at the Gacko Power Plant as they finished their shift. One hundred prisoners were placed in military transport and taken to the military prison in Avtovac, five kilometres from Gacko. *1506 Serbian soldiers then moved from house to house arresting more Muslim men and taking them to Avtovac and then to Hotel Terma, outside Gacko. *1507 On 4 July, Serbian forces reportedly went from house to house for any remaining Muslims. The soldiers entered the home of the reporting witness and told her that she had two minutes to leave the house. The witness and 980 Muslim residents were taken by bus and train to the Serbian-Macedonian border. A Muslim relief organization took them to Skopje. *1508
Hotel Terma: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government.) Male Muslim prisoners from the city of Gacko were transferred from Avtovac to the hotel. The report provided no other information concerning a camp at this location. *1509
Gacko Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the National Organization for Victim Assistance.) In the beginning of June 1992, Serbian forces in Gacko arrested 200 Muslims that had been held (the report is unclear about this point) on the ground floor of the hotel. *1510 Fifteen Muslim male prisoners were killed by the Serbian captors which caused the rest of the prisoners to panic. The witness reported that the Serbians began robbing and torturing the prisoners, extorting money and seizing property and cars. *1511 The prisoners were mistreated the entire month of June. The prisoners were reportedly beaten if they refused the demands of the soldiers. Beginning of 18 June, all the Muslim villages near Gacko were set on fire. The burning and looting continued until 1 July. Some of the Muslim inhabitants, older men and women, were brought to Gacko. *1512 Some of them were allegedly killed at Kula. *1513 On 4 July, all prisoners held at the hotel were taken to the TE Hotel. *1514
TE Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the National Organization for Victim Assistance.) According to one report, one hundred male civilians were separated from their families and transferred to the TE Hotel from the Gacko Hotel on 4 July 1992. *1515 Women and children were put onto 11 buses and driven to Macedonia via Montenegro. *1516
TPP Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In April 1992, the city of Gacko and surrounding Muslim villages were attacked by Serbian forces. According to one report, some of the Muslim residents were held in this hotel before being transferred to a concentration camp in Bileca. *1517 Bosnian Muslim women and children were allegedly transported to a camp in Kalinovik where they were reportedly subjected to physical mistreatment and rape. *1518 The report stated that 10 minor women were transferred to a bordello in Miljevina. *1519
The report provided the names of Serbians who allegedly took part in the crimes committed against Muslims in Gacko. *1520
Samacki Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The Samacki Hotel was located in the south- east end of town of Gacko. *1521 On 5 June 1992, prisoners from the military casern in Avtovac were transferred to a processing centre in the basement of the Samacki Hotel in Gacko. *1522 The conditions in the basement were poor as a significant amount of water had reportedly leaked in. *1523
Male Bosnian Muslim prisoners who were captured by Serbian «White Eagles» paramilitary forces near the Kosuta Motel on 18 June 1992, and imprisoned at the Secretariat for Internal Affairs (SUP) building in Gacko were transferred to the basement of the Samacki Hotel sometime after 18 June. At least six prisoners were killed at the hotel before 136 prisoners were transferred on 1 July 1992 to a prison in Bileca. Four prisoners were shot and killed by Serbian forces as they were being loaded into trucks for transport. *1524
Another report stated that the Serbian offensive in the city of Gacko began in the beginning of June 1992. The «Cetniks» reportedly captured as many Muslim males as they could. Those residents of Gacko who were not captured escaped with their families into the mountains and Borovina woods on the east side of the city. The male prisoners were then reportedly taken to a «prison in the basement of a hotel in a Gacko suburb». *1525
A separate witness statement stated that Serbian forces shelled the villages around the town of Gacko on 18 or 19 June 1992. *1526 The reporting witness fled to Basici west of Gacko after leaving Gacko. Those who survived the shelling on 18-19 June were captured by Serbian forces and taken to a prison in «a hotel in the suburbs of Gacko». *1527 This appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the Samacki Hotel. *1528
Another witness reported that sometime in early June 1992, «Cetniks» took 320 men prisoners to a prison in the basement of a hotel in a Gacko suburb. *1529 Eleven men reportedly died within 15 days of confinement after being subjected to interrogation, physical abuse and deprivation of food and water. *1530 The prisoners were transferred to the town of Bileca, between Gacko and Trebinje to the military camp which was converted into a concentration camp and to the police station. *1531 On 28 June 1992 the Muslim village Patorci was destroyed.
Gacko Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) Serbian forces attacking the city of Gacko in June 1992 positioned themselves approximately two kilometres from the city on a small hill called Glavice, in a house belonging to Zejnil Tanovic. The Serbian forces reportedly positioned an anti- aircraft machine-gun at the top of the hill and launched attacks on the refugees who had fled into the mountains east of the city. *1532 The leader of the Serbian forces at Glavice reportedly also worked at the Steam Power Plant in Gacko. He was appointed by the Serbs after the former plant director, Branko Grk, refused to give Serbian forces a list of employed Muslim males born in 1973 and 1974 during the JNA mobilization of new recruits in June 1992. Those who resisted conscription were reportedly imprisoned. *1533
The reporting witness and family were part of a group of 200 Muslim and Croatian refugees who surrendered to Serbian forces on 12 July 1992. The refugees were loaded into trucks and taken off the mountain. At Bohusa near the city of Gacko the refugees were taken out of the trucks and detained for three or four hours. The Serbs interrogated the refugees about the location of the men from the city. One group of civilians were sent back to the mountain and the other group of refugees were taken to the Gacko police station. *1534
The refugees were held at the police station until 4:00 p.m. on 12 July. The witness stated that the police station was filled with items that had been plundered from Muslim homes. *1535 The younger women were reportedly questioned by Vitomir Popic. *1536 The reporting witness and her cousin were interrogated regarding the whereabouts of their fathers, brothers and neighbours. *1537 The prisoners were then loaded into trucks and transported to Trebinje and then Bileca. *1538
Another witness reported a Serbian assault on the city of Gacko in April 1992. *1539 Inhabitants of the city fled into the mountains near the village of Meduljici where they remained for 22 days. The witness and her children were captured along with 100 civilians and taken to the Gacko police station. *1540 At the police station, the prisoners were reportedly interrogated for several hours. *1541 The report did not indicate how long the prisoners were held at the police station before they were transported by truck to Trebinje. *1542
Secretariat for Internal Affairs (SUP): (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The Commission has received a report from the U.S. Department of State that Bosnian Muslim males were held prisoner by Bosnian Serb forces at the Secretariat of Internal Affairs building in the town of Gacko. *1543 The report stated that on 18 June 1992, the Bosnian Serbs controlling Gacko announced that all Bosnian Muslim and Croat residents could leave town. One hundred men, women and children left Gacko in a convoy heading towards Montenegro. Serbian paramilitary member of the «White Eagles» intercepted the convoy approximately seven kilometres south of Gacko near the Kosuta Motel in Zborna Gomila. *1544 All able-bodied male prisoners were taken from the convoy, forced to lie down on the road, and searched by the paramilitary members. *1545 The men were stripped of their valuables, and the women and children were forced into several military trucks and taken back to Gacko. *1546 An identified Serbian soldier from Gacko was allegedly responsible for the shooting death of at least one prisoner. *1547 The male prisoners were transported by military truck to the Secretariat for Internal Affairs (SUP) building in Gacko. *1548
An identified Serbian was reportedly in charge of the SUP in Gacko. *1549 The prisoners were interrogated and tortured by two inspectors who were identified in the materials, both from Gacko. *1550 After the prisoners had been tortured, the Serb leader transferred the prisoners to the basement of the Samacki Hotel. *1551
The BiH War Crimes Commission published the names of men accused of committing war crimes in Gacko. Their identities are available in the source materials. *1552
Gacko Electric Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A Serb- controlled camp was located at the Gacko Electric Plant in the city of Gacko. *1553 The camp was reportedly established under the direction of the SDS (Serbian Democratic Party) Commander in Eastern Hercegovina. *1554 The report stated that Muslim and Croatian prisoners were held at the camp. *1555
Gacko Power Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UN Economic and Social Council.) Muslim and Croat men were reportedly imprisoned by Serbian forces in the Gacko Power Plant in June 1992. *1556 The prisoners were allegedly beaten repeatedly, especially at night, to prevent them from sleeping. Ten of these prisoners have reportedly disappeared after guards called them by name. One former prisoner is reported to have witnessed the arbitrary executions of five prisoners on separate occasions. *1557
Fazlagic Tower: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) According to one report, a Bosnian Muslim witness described the «ethnic cleansing» of a cluster of villages referred to as Fazlagica Kula in the Gacko area. *1558 On 19 June 1992 Serbian forces from the villages Miholjace, Srdjevici and Medjulic entered Fazlagic Kula, reportedly looted the homes and stole livestock. Approximately 200 to 300 village residents fled into the surrounding mountains and remained there for 27 days. *1559 Serbian forces allegedly bombed the mountain in an attempt to force the villagers out. On 25 July, the Serbian forces communicated with the villagers by megaphone demanding that they give themselves up and promising them protection. Approximately 200 to 300 women and children reportedly responded and came out of the mountains. *1560 The women were taken to Gacko by Serbian forces and then loaded in four military convoys and transported through Bileca to Trebinje. The transport was rejected at Trebinje so they were dropped off at Bileca. *1561 After 15 days in Bileca, the witness fled to Montenegro. *1562 A Serbian controlled camp was located at the Fazlagic Tower. The report did not indicate which city in the municipality of Gacko the camp was located. *1563
Hotel Kosuta: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Government.) Hotel Kosuta was located 10 kilometres south of Gacko, 500 kilometres from the road. *1564 Part of the Serbian headquarters were reportedly located at the hotel, and the other part were located at the Gacko police station. *1565 According to one source, Muslim residents who had remained in the city of Gacko during the Serbian shelling of the city had been issued written passes from Serbian authorities which permitted them to leave the city. As a group of the Muslims attempted to leave the city, they were intercepted by members of the «White Eagles» paramilitary group. *1566 The Muslim males were beaten and «dragged by hands, heads or legs all over the parking lot» in front of the hotel before being taken back to prison in Gacko. *1567 The men and women were robbed of personal possessions, and their cars were stolen. *1568 The Serbian forces set prisoners on fire after dousing them with gas and beat prisoners on their heads with rifle butts. *1569 The women and children were forced to watch the incident from the cars. *1570 The Muslim women were raped at the hotel and then taken into the woods a few kilometres from the hotel and murdered. *1571
One female Muslim prisoner who was among the group of Muslim prisoners ambushed by the «White Eagles» near the Hotel Kosuta. *1572 The soldiers reportedly entered the cars of the prisoners and drove the women to the hotel. The witness stated that some of the men who had been arrested by the Serbs were at the hotel when the women arrived, and that they were so bloody and beaten that they were unrecognizable. The witness stated that the soldiers began beating the men again forcing the women and children to watch. *1573 After conducting the beatings, the soldiers began to search the women. The women were reportedly taken to a large room in the hotel and robbed of jewelry and any other valuables in their possession. *1574 After being robbed, some of the female prisoners were reportedly taken into various hotel rooms and raped. *1575 The men were taken to the Gacko prison for 10 days and the women were sent back to Gacko. *1576
Unidentified Hotel in Gacko: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Government.) Another witness was reportedly arrested at his home by one identified individual and two unidentified Serbians. According to the witness, he and his wife were beaten and robbed before being taken to a hotel in Gacko. *1577 One of the perpetrators was an unidentified Montenegrin who threatened to kill those who had not responded to the draft. *1578 The male and female prisoners were separated and the men were taken to the basement of the hotel and the women were sent to Macedonia. *1579 Several prisoners were allegedly killed in the basement of the prison. *1580 After what appears from the report to be a brief detention, the male prisoners were transported to Bileca in two trucks by military police. *1581
A separate report stated that the witness was confined in the basement of a hotel in Gacko. *1582 A Bosnian Muslim male from south of Banja Luka reported that in late April and early May 1992 Serbian infantry forces attacked Mostar. *1583 The city residents reportedly fled into the hills surrounding the city. Serbian forces captured 15 refugees and transported them by truck convoy to a hotel in Gacko on 1 June. *1584 The prisoners were reportedly beaten by the Serbian soldiers before being imprisoned in the basement of the hotel. *1585
When the prisoners arrived at the hotel, 100 prominent Bosnian Muslim citizens of Gacko were imprisoned in the basement of the hotel. *1586 These included wealthy businessmen, civic leaders and teachers. One Croat citizen was among the prisoners. Each night, eight or nine prisoners were taken upstairs and interrogated about military information and beaten for two to three hours. Fifteen prisoners disappeared. It was alleged that those who disappeared were buried in a mass grave in Gacko's World War II Partisan Cemetery. *1587
During the night of 28 June, a Serbian guard from Gacko reportedly fired into the basement killing one Muslim prisoner and wounding another. *1588 In July, 1,100 prisoners were taken out of the basement in groups of 10 and beaten as they passed through a gauntlet of Serbian guards. The prisoners were told that they were being taken for exchange. Three prisoners were shot as guards loaded the prisoners into a large truck. *1589 Instead of being exchanged, the prisoners were taken to a former JNA Reserve Officer training academy in Bileca commanded by a Serb from the Sarajevo area. *1590
Hotel Rudnik: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) One report indicated that the Gacko prison was located in the Hotel Rudnik Basement and the Gacko Power Plant. *1591 Muslim and Croat men were reportedly imprisoned by Serbian forces in the Gacko Power Plant in June 1992. *1592 The prisoners were allegedly beaten repeatedly, especially at night, to prevent them from sleeping. Ten of these prisoners have reportedly disappeared after guards called them by name. One former prisoner is reported to have witnessed the arbitrary executions of five prisoners on separate occasions. *1593
One male Muslim prisoner who had been captured by the Serbs at Hotel Kosuta was among male prisoners taken to the part of the Gacko prison located at Hotel Rudnik. The witness reported that the prisoners were beaten continuously and that the worst period of the day was from 5:00 p.m. until midnight because the soldiers beat the prisoners to prevent them from sleeping. *1594
In the rooms of Hotel Rudnik the «Interviewing Platoons» which reportedly guarded the prisoners. *1595 Their commander was an active duty officer who the reporting witness was unable to identify. His deputy was identified. *1596 The head officers or main soldiers in the platoon were also identified. *1597 It was reported that they acted on the orders of the Ministry of the Interior (SUP) in Gacko. *1598 Those in charge at the SUP were an individual identified as the Chief of Police, another described as the Commander, a third who was said to be the Inspector, and one simply described as a policeman. *1599 The witness stated that those men and another man also identified were ideological leaders of the Serbian population.
A male Muslim prisoner reported that members of the «White Eagles» and JNA soldiers reportedly conducted most of the beatings at the prison. *1600 The witness stated that the prisoners were beaten until the soldiers tired. *1601 Prisoners reportedly began to disappear from the hotel. Some were beaten by soldiers and returned to the prison, while others disappeared permanently. *1602 The witness reported that one evening a drunk Serbian soldier entered an area where prisoners were being held and demanded that the prisoners identify persons whose pictures he was carrying. When none of the prisoners identified these people, Susic took out his gun and began firing at the prisoners randomly. One prisoner was shot in the head and died from his wounds and one prisoner was shot in the colon and survived. *1603
The prisoners were taken from the cellar of the hotel, loaded into trucks and transported to a camp in Bileca. Serbian soldiers beat the prisoners as they entered the truck. *1604
Gacko Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) On 19 July 1992, Serbian forces shelled the mountains east of Gacko where the Muslim and Croatian residents of Gacko had fled. *1605 Six Muslim women were arrested and taken to the Gacko prison, interrogated and then released. The report did not provide any other identifying information concerning the Gacko prison or its location. Another report stated that the Gacko Prison was located at the Hotel Rudnik and the Gacko Power Plant. *1606 The Serbians who had detained the women demanded that the women give the men a message to surrender. *1607
According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, the municipality of Glamoc had a population of 12,421. Of that number 79.3 per cent were Serbs, 18.1 per cent were Muslims, 1.5 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 1.1 per cent were described as «others».
Stadium: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The one report available from this area suggests that members of Serbian and Montenegrin paramilitary units and nationalist members of the Serbian Democratic Party were responsible for the creation and control of a concentration camp in Glamoc. *1608 The report states that some 400 of the areas most respected Muslims were imprisoned in the camp established at the stadium. *1609
The above-mentioned extremists were reportedly also responsible for abuses suffered by the Muslim detainees. *1610 The author noted that included among the examples of atrocities committed against the Muslim people was the drawing of vital quantities of blood from detainees for use in Serbian hospitals in the treatment of Serbs. No regard was given to the fact that this loss of blood necessarily resulted in loss of life to the donors. *1611
The village of Gorazde is a strategically and pragmatically important village for Serbs. It is located adjacent to a highway linking the Serbian capital of Belgrade with Serb held villages to the south-east. The village of Gorazde has a population of approximately 65,000. Its status currently is that of a UN protected area and is safe haven for hundreds of refugees from some eight surrounding villages. Gorazde is also one of the few remaining Muslim enclaves along the Drina river valley. *1612
In Gorazde, there allegedly are four camps for detaining mainly Serb civilians, *1613 but the evidence only provides names for three of the four detention facilities. BiH Government or Muslim forces reportedly operated the three named facilities. Reports indicate that at least 480 Serbs were detained in these camps. However, the report from the ICRC's visit to Gorazde on 2 August 1993 states that the Government of BiH held 24 prisoners. *1614 Additionally, previous Red Cross reports from 6 May 1993 and 22 June 1993 indicate that the BiH Government held 29 prisoners in Gorazde. *1615
Caves de Ville: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Muslim forces allegedly operated a prison for Serbs at Caves de Ville in Gorazde. *1616 No additional information was provided regarding the location, operation or conditions at this facility.
Sasici Village: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reports indicate that BiH Government forces detained as many as 100 Serbs in the village of Sasici. *1617 No additional information was provided regarding the location, operation or conditions at this facility.
Vitkovici: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) Reports indicate that BiH Government forces detained as many as 380 Serbs in the village of Vikovici. *1618 One report also alleges that Serbs detained at Vitkovici were tortured. *1619 Additionally, between 3 and 5 May 1992, Muslim «Green Berets» from Gorazde, a former waiter among them, reportedly killed several Serbs from Vitkovici. *1620 The report also alleges that Serbian women were raped and Serbian children were killed. *1621
Gornji Vakuf is located in west-central BiH. The pre-war population of the city and province of Gornji Vakuf was about 25,130. Approximately 56.1 per cent Muslim, 42.6 per cent Croat, and 1.3 per cent others. *1622
On 17 May 1993, UNPROFOR reported that the continued detention of 45 Muslim prisoners in Gornji Vakuf illustrated the direct control of HVO military police within brigades by the OZ commander. Apparently the MP commander refused to obey the orders of the brigade commander in Gornji Vakuf. He only took orders from the OZ Commander. *1623
After intervention by UN and ECMM teams, the above- mentioned 45 Muslim prisoners were reportedly released. *1624
The ECMM actively monitored the situation in relation to prisoners of war in Gornji Vakuf. On 26 July 1993, BiH forces reported to an ECMM team that it held 300 to 500 POWs from Bugojno. *1625
On 10 September 1993, an ECMM team reported that after clashes between BiH troops and HVO troops, there were about 500 POWs and at that time more than 300 had been released. The Croatians however claimed that there were more than 300 POWs still being held by BiH authorities at the time. ECMM personnel expected more POWs to be released within seven days. *1626
On 10 September 1993, the «Civil Police» reported to an ECMM team that 70 Muslim POWs were being held in Trnovaca. It seems that the same «civil police» admitted that they let Croat POWs dig trenches. *1627
On 16 September 1993, the ECMM reported that BiH forces continued to use POWs to build earth works on the front lines. In fact, on 15 September 1993, one HVO prisoner was wounded while digging trenches at BiH positions near Gornji Vakuf. He was evacuated to the hospital in Bugojno. *1628
Private House: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) ICRC representatives reported the existence of a detention facility in a private home in Gornji Vakuj. Their first visit to this facility was reported to have been on 12 March 1994. No additional details were made available regarding the operation, control nor conditions of this facility. *1629
Military Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) ICRC representatives reported the existence of a detention facility in a private home in Gornji Vakuj. Their first visit to this facility was reported to have been on 29 March 1994. No additional details were made available regarding the operation, control, nor conditions of this facility. *1630
On 22 March 1994, the ICRC announced that BiH forces handed over six Croat captives at a camp in Gornji Vakuf. *1631
The municipality of Gradacac is located in northern Bosnia and bordered by Modrica to the west, Bosanski Samac to the north, Brcko to the east and Srebrenik to the south. According to the 1991 Yugoslavian census, Gradac had a population of 56,378; of that 60.2 per cent were Muslim, 19.8 per cent were Serb, 15.1 per cent were Croat and the remaining 4.9 per cent were described as «other».
Srnice Sports Hall: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Srnice was the only Serbian village in the vicinity of Gradacac. After the HVO forces surrounded the village, most of the Serb inhabitants were evacuated. Approximately 94 Serbs remained. These individuals were taken to the Sports Hall. They remained there for a few days. *1632
Gradacac Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) A number of Serbs were arrested in July 1992 and held in the prison in Gradacac. The detainees were never charged with an offence. *1633
They were released only to labour for the Croatians, for example, agriculture, wood-cutting, and digging trenches. If the detainees refuse to work they were sent back to the prison. *1634
According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility established at a prison in Gradacac on 17 July 1993. No additional information was made available regarding the conditions or the length of the facility's existence. *1635
House Arrest: (The existence of this type of detention has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Different groups of Serbian detainees were held in homes. At first, the detainees were held in the homes under guard. Later, the detainees were placed without a guard but with certain families that kept watch over them. *1636
Gornja Tramosnjica School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Area Serbians were arrested and detained in a school building in Gornja Tramosnjica. The detainees were forced to work in the fields. *1637
The municipality of Grude is located in south-western BiH, on the Croatian border. It bounds Posusje to the north and Ljubuski to the south. Grude's prewar population was 15,976, of which 99.8 per cent were Croats, .1 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining .1 per cent were described as «others».
Farm: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team.) According to reports, a farm in Grude was used as a camp to detain male and female individuals from the region. *1638
No additional information regarding this facility was made available, consequently, the identity of witnesses, victims and perpetrators as well as conditons existing during detention remain unknown.
Garage: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) The Commission has received reports that approximately 300 Serbs were detained in a garage in Grude. *1639 The camp was operated by members of the Croatian-Muslim armed forces. *1640 The ICRC visited the Grude camp on 16 September 1993 and reported that no POWs were found. *1641
At least one Serbian man, Aleksa Janjic *1642, reportedly died as a result of injuries incurred while detained at this camp.
Han Pijesak is located north-east of Sarajevo. According to 1991 census data, the population was 6,346. At that time, the population was reportedly 58.3 per cent Serb, 40.1 per cent Muslim, and 1.6 per cent were described as «other». *1643
Unidentified Detention Facility: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team.) Reportedly, there was a detention facility in Han Pijesak where men were killed and women and young children raped. It has been previously reported that many people are also buried there. *1644 The reports, however, did not provide information regarding the operation, control nor the length of the facility's existence.
This county [¤] is in the south-west quarter of BiH, south- west of Sarajevo. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, Jablanica had a population of 12,664, of which 72.1 per cent were Muslims, 17.8 per cent were Croats, 6.1 per cent were described as «other», and 4 per cent were Serbs.
As a result of Muslim military aggression, the HVO or Croatian forces lost a great deal of territory. *1645 Reportedly, after 14 April 1993, telephone lines were cut and the Croats of Jablanica were not permitted to work. *1646 They were reportedly assigned to «work brigades» and used as forced labour to cut wood and dig trenches. *1647
Museum of the Revolution: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Defence Debriefing Team.) According to sources, 800 Croats reportedly were, and may still be, interned in this Muslim-run detention centre. *1648 All the prisoners slept on concrete floors, without blankets, were insufficiently clothed and were reportedly kept in appalling hygienic conditions. *1649
According to another report, as of 28 June 1993, some 200 Croatian civilians have been imprisoned in the museum. *1650 The new detainees are, reportedly, in addition to the 500 civilians already said to have been detained here by members of the BiH Army. *1651
One report was offered by an employee of the power plant in Grabavica who was detained in the area for several days. The witness was transported to this location in the afternoon of 11 May 1993. *1652 The witness was interrogated and reportedly not physically mistreated. By 9:00 p.m. that evening, he was allowed to leave. *1653 Reportedly, because he was unable to return to his home, he remained overnight in the prison. Throughout the night, he heard others being beaten. It was his opinion that the individuals being beaten were members of the HVO. He recalled that the people administering the beatings were from Sandzak. *1654
According to one source, 500 Croats have reportedly been interned at Jablanica since March 1993. *1655 There is strong evidence of a food shortage in the area which brings into question the fate of those detained. There are also reports of the detainees being used as human shields and forced labour. *1656 One source suggests that Croatian prisoners are made to dig trenches in mine fields in the immediate vicinity of the front lines. *1657
Jablanica Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is only one report which refers to a detention facility at this location. *1658 According to the report, two of four HVO soldiers, who were in Doljani at the time of the Armija attack, were reportedly incarcerated in the Jablanica prison. *1659
Jablanica Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in a factory in Jablanica. The ICRC first visited the camp on 21 April 1993. *1660
House in Doljani: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch.) It was reported that during a battle between Muslim and Croatian soldiers in the village of Doljani on 27 July 1993, about five armed and uniformed HVO soldiers, an armed male civilian and five unarmed civilians fled the village. Upon reaching a meadow they were shouted at to lie on the ground and as the group dropped they were shot at from two opposite directions. They were then approached by about 20 Muslim soldiers. The wounded and an HVO soldier were ordered to remain behind *1661 while the two women and a civilian man were taken to a house by two of the Muslim soldiers, where they were imprisoned on the ground floor. A wounded HVO soldier was already being detained in the house when the three civilians arrived and the four remained incarcerated in the same room. *1662
Unknown Jablanica Camp(s): (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including an official UN source.) The Special Rapporteur, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, reported being aware of appalling conditions in a detention camp in Jablanica where many civilians are held. Reportedly, among the detainees are a number suffering from psychiatric illness. There is no specific location given and no details are provided. *1663 Several other reports also refer to the existence of a camp in Jablanica. *1664
Jajce is located in west-central BiH. The pre-war population of the city and province of Jajce was 44,903. Approximately 38.8 per cent Muslim, 35.1 per cent Croat, 19.3 per cent Serb, and 6.8 per cent were described as «others». *1665
Old Town Fortress: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) There were reports that Muslim forces ran a camp holding about 500 Serbs in the old fortress or Old Town Fortress in Jajce. *1666
The ICRC reported a place of detention in Jajce under common Bosnian Croat control as of 1 October 1992. *1667
On 11 August 1993, the President of the LRC Jajce met with an ECMM team in Livno and asked for assistance in relation to a group of Croats probably being held prisoner by Serbs, who occupied Jajce, in the Berta Kucar School in Jajce. *1668
This county is located in central BiH, north-west of Sarajevo. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the county had a population of 55,847. Muslims constituted 54.5 per cent of the population, Croats were 29.8 per cent, Serbs were 8.8 per cent, and the remaining 6.9 per cent were described as «other».
House in Kakanj: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A number of sources refer to an incident involving a young woman from Kakanj who was detained for almost a month in her grandmother's home by two Muslim soldiers. The soldiers reportedly raped her on a daily basis, eventually impregnating her. *1669
Power Plant in Katici-Termoelektrana: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) According to one report, more than 500 Croatian men are being detained at this location just outside of Kakanj. The report suggested that the location was being monitored by UNPROFOR, but that the detainees were not permitted to leave the facility. *1670
Kakanj Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported the existence of a camp in a factory in Kakanj. The ICRC first visited this camp on 28 September 1993. *1671
The county of Kalesija is located in north-eastern BiH. According to the 1991 census, the population was 41,795, of which 79.5 per cent were Muslim, 18.3 per cent were Serb, and 2.2 per cent were described as «other». *1672
Caparde «Bordello»: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International.) It is reported that 40 young Muslim women from the town of Brezovo Polje were held and systematically raped in a makeshift bordello in a furniture warehouse in Caparde following the capture of the town by Serb forces in early summer 1992. *1673 On 17 June 1992 *1674, about 1,000 women, children and old people were taken away from the village by Serbian forces, arriving in the town of Caparde several days later. *1675 At Caparde, the older women were separated from the younger women (15-25) *1676. The younger women were then held for several nights in a furniture warehouse and repeatedly raped before rejoining the older women and later being released. *1677
Warehouse, Gornje Vukovinje: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely an official UN source.) A woman *1678 was beaten and raped in her home on 18 May 1992 by two Muslim men. *1679 She was then taken to Gornje Vukovinje where she was detained for seven days, without toilet or washing facilities and without bedding. *1680 She was questioned about having a radio station in her house to contact the Serbian Army and was threatened but was not mistreated. *1681 There is no indication that there were others held here.
Osmaci Village Camp: *1682 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) A camp is reported to exist or have existed in Osmaci Village in Kalesija. *1683 No additional information was provided regarding operation, control nor the duration of the facility's existence.
Camp at Unknown Location in Kalesija: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A Muslim woman *1684 from Zvornik reported being taken by Serbs on Sunday, 31 May *1685 with about 150 women and children in two buses in the direction of Tuzla. *1686 The woman and two others were sent to Tuzla and Kalesija while other women and children were kept to be exchanged for captured Serbs. *1687
Camp at Unknown Location in Kalesija: *1688 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It is reported that between 17 and 19 June, «extremists» bussed non-Serbian civilians in 12 buses from Brcko to Bijeljina. These people were allegedly tortured for several days at Majevica, and then some of them returned to Bijeljina, while some were taken to Caparde in Kalesija county, where after two days of torture, they were released and managed to flee to Kladanj and Tuzla. *1689
The municipality of Kalinovik is located in south- eastern BiH and is bordered by the municipalities of Trnovo, Foca, Gacko, Nevesinje and Konjic. According to the 1991 census, the population of Kalinovik was 4,657. The ethnic majority in the municipality were Serbs at 60.6 per cent, Muslims comprised 37.1 per cent, and Croats 2.3 per cent.
Kalinovik Elementary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) It was reported that a concentration camp was located in the city village of Kalinovik. The Serbian controlled camp reportedly held 60 civilian prisoners. The prisoners were men and women of all ages. *1690
A refugee from the town of Gacko reported that 1,000 Bosnian Muslims fled Gacko when Serbian soldiers entered Kalinovik and began destroying Muslim homes. *1691 The refugees stayed at an unidentified location on Zelengora Mountain until «Cetniks» began shelling the area on 1 July 1992. Some of the refugees were killed immediately and others were reportedly pushed down the «Previla Cliff» by Serbian soldiers. One hundred eighty-seven of the refugees were captured by the soldiers and taken to the Kalinovik Elementary School. *1692
All prisoners were allegedly physically and psychologically mistreated by the Serbian soldiers. *1693 One former prisoner reported that he and his family were imprisoned in the school without food for one month. *1694 before being transferred from the school to a Muslim house in the town of Foca where he was held for three days. *1695 One former prisoner stated that women of all ages were raped in front of their relatives, and many disappeared. *1696 On 1 August 1992, 12 young women age 12-19 were taken from the school and were never seen again. *1697 Another former prisoner reported that young girls were subjected to severe torture at the camp and many were repeatedly raped. *1698
Two Serbian perpetrators were identified in the report. The first was identified as Pero Elez, and the second was also identified in the source materials. *1699 This report identified a Montenegrin perpetrator who wore a camouflage uniform. *1700 A Bosnian Muslim female from Gacko, arrested in a nearby village, along with her family, by Serbian forces at the end of June 1992, was reportedly held at the school for one month. *1701 She reported that two armed Montenegrins dressed in camouflage uniforms came to the school at the end of July. *1702 The witness identified one of the men by both his name and his nickname. *1703 The second man was identified only by his nickname. *1704 The witness stated that she and her family were taken to a house in the town of Miljevina in the municipality of Foca by the two men. *1705
Yet another report refers to a concentration camp located in a school in Kalinovik. *1706 A Bosnian Muslim family from Jelec was reportedly taken prisoner by «Cetniks» from Miljevina. The family was detained in the police station for two hours and then taken by truck to Foca. *1707 They were imprisoned in «Partizan Hall» in Foca for 10 days and then loaded into trucks with several other families and brought to the Kalinovik School. The former prisoner's wife and daughter were allegedly raped at the Kalinovik School. *1708
According to a female victim from the village of Berac, she and her family attempted to escape the aggression in the area by going in the direction of Konjic. *1709 They were allegedly arrested by the Serbian army and detained for a few days in Ulog, just outside of Konjic, after which, they were taken to and detained at this school in Kalinovik for a month. *1710
The witness reported that she and others received very little food over the course of the month. The witness was reportedly then taken by two Montenegrins to a private home in Foca where she was raped repeatedly. *1711
Barutni Magazin: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The Commission has received one report of a concentration camp located in Jelasacko Polje where 150 civilians were held at the a gunpowder store called «Baratni Magazin». *1712 One witness reported that on 2 August 1992, four prisoners were taken out of the camp. The report stated that their bodies were discovered 10 days later in the town of Rugoj. *1713 The report stated that the bodies had been mutilated and the hands of the victims were tied together. It is unclear from the report who found the bodies. The bodies were reportedly buried in the village of Dujmovici. *1714 On 5 August 1992, 14 prisoners disappeared from the camp and never returned. *1715
On 5 August 1992, 23 prisoners were taken from the camp to the village of Ratine to a stable owned by Mustafa Tuzlak where they were shot by soldiers. *1716 A witness who survived the killings stated that the victims were brought in to the stable, doused in gasoline and set on fire. *1717
Camp Kalinovik: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral.) The Commission received one brief report concerning the location of a Serbian run camp in the village of Kalinovik where Muslim women were allegedly subjected to rape and torture. Local «Cetniks» and members of local Serbian paramilitary reportedly controlled the camp. The female Muslim prisoners were from the municipality of Kalinovik, and from Nevesinje, Gacko, Podrinje and the Drina River valley region. *1718 According to the report, a former 12 year old female prisoner from the village of Jelec near Foca stated on video tape that she had been raped by Serbian soldiers on nine occasions, and on each occasion she was raped multiple times. *1719
The Serbian soldiers released male prisoners from the camp and detained 50 female prisoners. *1720
Kalinovik Powder Plant: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the BBC.) The Commission of Experts has received one report of a concentration camp located at the Kalinovik Powder Plant where 10 Muslim prisoners were held. *1721 The report mentions two «local Cetniks» responsible for taking male and female prisoners from the camp.
Kalinovik Hotel: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely The Independent). The only hotel in Kalinovik was used as a rape camp for Msulim women being held at the Kalinovik camp. Various reports use the names «Kalinovik camp» the Kalinovik Elementary School,« the »Kalinovik School« and the »school gymnasium« interchangeably so that it appears that all refer to the same camp. The witness was among Muslim refugees from the town of Gacko and other towns in the area who fled to the Zelengora Mountains after Serbian forces began arresting and murdering Muslim inhabitants. *1722 The Serbs captured 105 Muslim women and transported them in open trucks to Kalinovik where they were imprisoned in the gymnasium. *1723
The reporting witness stated that initially the women were not mistreated by the Serbian guards. However, in early August those guards were replaced by Seselj's «White Eagles» paramilitary forces. *1724 The witness described the men as «filthy» and stated that they shouted obscenities at the female prisoners. *1725 A woman with long brown hair who identified herself as a member of the «White Eagles» ordered the female prisoners to examine their babies to see if they had been circumcised. *1726
On 2 August 1992 the reporting witness and 11 other young women being detained in the Kalinovik Elementary School with 100 young Muslim women were taken by Serbian militiamen from the camp to the only hotel in Kalinovik where they were subjected to systematic rape. *1727 The women were allegedly chosen based upon their child bearing potential and those who were already pregnant were left alone. *1728 The witness reported that she was raped by two «Cetniks» who told her she would be killed if she did not comply with their demands. She stated that she was repeatedly raped by Serbian soldiers for one month. *1729
A former prisoner who escaped being raped by convincing the Serbian militiamen that she was pregnant reported that the Serbs came to the gymnasium each night and took several young women by force to the hotel to be raped. Many of the women were in their early teens, and the militiamen selected certain girls repeatedly. *1730 The witness identified three of the militiamen responsible for the rapes. The first, who she described as the worst of the three men, was named Pero Elez from Miljevina. *1731 The second was also identified. *1732 The women held at the gymnasium were released on 28 August 1992 for Serbian prisoners in Croatian hands. *1733 At least 15 of the women who became pregnant as a result of being raped by the militiamen obtained abortions in Mostar and Jablanica. *1734
During the day, the women were forced to clean the hotel, after which they were returned to the camp. Rapes began on 2 August 1992 and by 28 August. All but 10 of the 105 female Muslim prisoners held at the Kalinovik camp had allegedly been gang-raped by Serbian soldiers. *1735 The women identified the perpetrators as Serbian members of Vojislav Seselj's «White Eagles» paramilitary group. *1736 Several of the victims stated that Serbian militiamen placed four and five year old children on a table with knives held to their throats to persuade the mothers to relinquish jewelry and money. *1737
The county of Kiseljak is located in central BiH. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population of Kiseljak was 24,081. At the time, the population was 51.7 per cent Croatian, 40.9 per cent Muslim, and 7.4 per cent were referred to as «other». *1738
Kiseljak Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) It was reported that ICRC has been denied access to the prison in Kiseljak. *1739 The ICRC provided a list of camps visited including a camp in a prison which was first visited on 28 February 1994. *1740
Barracks, Kiseljak: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility established in a barracks on 25 April 1993. The report was silent as to the identity of both the detainees and the controlling party as well as the conditions at the facility. *1741
Hospital, Kiseljak: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) According to one report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility established in a hospital on 20 July 1993. The report was silent as to the identity of both the detainees and the controlling party as well as the conditions at the facility. *1742
Duhri Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) It is reported that all males are detained by the HVO in the Muslim village of Duhri near Kiseljak. They were taken to a municipal building in Kiseljak on 7 July *1743 where they are forced to dig ditches at night. *1744
Concrete Hangar: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) The Deputy Commander of 3 Corps in BiH, Ramiz Dugalic, reported a camp holding 150 Muslims in a concrete hangar in the HVO barracks in Kiseljak. *1745
Unknown Camp in Kiseljak: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) Five people are reported to be detained by Croatian forces in an unidentified camp in the area of Kiseljak. *1746
On 10 June 1993, an «Agreement among the parties to halt the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina» was signed. Article II concerned the release of prisoners/detainees and displaced persons. A Joint Humanitarian Commission (JHC) was established on 14 June. The JHC agreed to release all prisoners and displaced persons step by step, and it was agreed that BiH should start to release all prisoners from the prison in the Zenica area, presuming that HVO would release all prisoners from Kiseljak, Busovaca, and Vitez. *1747
Town Jail, Kiseljak: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ECMM.) It was reported that on 20 June 1993, a total of 66 prisoners were released from the town jail. *1748
It was reported that on 23 June 1993, a convoy of 19 buses was observed crossing from Serb-held territory to Kiseljak. It is felt that the most likely explanation is that they were prisoners being released in the latest example of BSA/HVO liaison. *1749
The municipality of Kladanj is located in eastern Bosnia. The pre-war population of Kladanj was 16,028. Muslims comprised the majority of the population at 73.3 per cent, Serbs comprised 23.9 per cent, and 2.8 per cent were listed as «other».
The Commission received a report that stated that 95 Serbian civilians and one child were imprisoned since May 1992 in the village of Stupari, eight kilometres north of the town of Kladanj. *1750 The report quoted the Mayor of Kladanj, stating that the prisoners were being held «for their own security, to protect them from retaliation by the Muslim population.» *1751 A team from the ECMM reported that they visited the three buildings in the town of Stupari where the prisoners were held. *1752
According to the report, the prisoner's homes had been burned by Muslim forces. The prisoners were guarded by five armed soldiers who allowed them to go outside for one hour a day. The prisoners sometimes were not given anything to eat for three days. The prisoners reported that guards were frequently violent toward them and that no medical care was provided. The ICRC reported that the prisoners appeared to be «psychologically worn out and very weak». *1753
Stupari Elementary School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In early August 1992, Serbian prisoners who had been exchanged in Malinjak, reported that approximately 1,000 Serbs from the villages of Lupoglava, Matijevici, Majdan, and Kocajevici were detained in the Stupari Elementary School. *1754 Conditions in the camp were reportedly very poor. According to the report, an identified physician forcibly took blood from the Serbian prisoners for wounded Muslims and Croats. *1755
Kljuc is a province in north-west BiH. According to the 1991 census, it had a total population of 37,233, of whom 49.5 per cent were Serbian, 47.6 per cent Muslim, and 2.9 per cent were described as «other».
There are reports of four Serb-run camps in the region: the sports hall at Kljuc, the Jedinstvo School in Tomina, Jezerce, and the Sanica Elementary School. Many of the prisoners from these camps were ultimately sent on to the Manjaca Camp in Banja Luka. Others were sent to Sanski Most and Stara Gradiska, Croatia. *1756
There is also one report of a camp controlled by the BiH government in Kljuc, but no precise information about where it is located or who it holds. *1757
Sports Hall at Kljuc: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Defence Debriefing Team.) The sports hall located in the centre of Kljuc was established by Serbian forces. The prisoners kept there are Muslim villagers from the region who were arrested upon the siege of their villages. In particular, there are reports that men, women and children from Velagici and Vukovska Brda were taken to the sports hall in May and June 1992. *1758 It appears that the camp was first founded somewhere near this time. *1759
These reports describe the sports hall as a sort of «collecting centre» where prisoners were interrogated and stripped of their valuables before being sent off to another camp. *1760 Apparently, men between the ages of 16 and 60 were to be taken to Manjaca. *1761 The ex-prisoners of the reports here describe being detained for only one or two days before they were sent somewhere else.
One report describes the shelling of the village of Velagici and the arrest of its inhabitants on 27 May 1992. *1762 At this time, many women and children escaped by foot to the nearby village of Pastajre. Those that remained were arrested and taken to the sports hall at Kljuc. Approximately 70 men and a number of women, children and the elderly were captured. According to the witness, the men were interrogated at the sports hall during the evening of 28 May and the morning of 29 May. They were asked about the locations of weapons and positions of Croatian and Muslim special forces. During these interrogations, they received harsh beatings with wooden and rubber sticks. They were also beaten and kicked by a group of civilians and soldiers who lined the corridor leading to the interrogation room. *1763
The Serbs in charge of the camp are not named, but it is reported that the local Serbs responsible for the attack of Velagici itself were assigned to the Sixth Krajina Brigade based two kilometres north of Velagici along the Sanica River. *1764
In this case, the male prisoners were transferred to the prison at Stara Gradiska in Croatia after interrogation. *1765 In the late afternoon of 28 May 1992, about 400 of them were put on three buses and left for the camp. The women and children remained at the sports hall for another two days and were then released. *1766 Apparently, those that remained at the camp were forced to work in the fields. *1767 The exact character of their duties is not explained.
A second report about the camp at the Kljuc sports hall comes from a man who was arrested on 26 June 1992. *1768 He was arrested with 14 other men and brought to the sports hall. There, he and the others were interrogated and beaten. Three men died as a result of these beatings.
The witness does not mention precisely who ran the camp but claims that the men who arrested him were either members of the Serbian police or army. *1769 They wore camouflage or olive uniforms and were accompanied by men in civilian clothes with beards.
After one day at the sports hall, the witness was transferred with 120 other prisoners to the Manjaca Camp in Banja Luka. *1770
Jedinstvo School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) The Jedinstvo School is in Tomina. Tomina is in between Sanica Donja and Sanski Most in the Kljuc province. Apparently, this school held Muslims who had been defending the towns of Tomina, Vrhpolje, and Hrustovo, yet it is also described mentioned in some detail in a report about the Muslim prisoners of Sanica Donja. *1771
Apparently, the 6th Krajina Brigade of the JNA started shelling the village of Sanica Donja on 29 May 1992. The Muslim villagers successfully defended themselves for about a month, but were ultimately defeated in late June. They were arrested and taken to Jezerce. *1772 From there, they were sent on to Sanski Most by truck. En route, they stopped at the Jedinstvo School. Here, the driver of the truck talked to a camp guard and told him that he was bringing more prisoners. The guard told him that they should be taken to Sanski Most.
Before continuing on their journey, the prisoners waited outside the camp. During this time, they witnessed the decapitation of nearly 100 prisoners in front of the school. Male prisoners were brought out of the school three at a time. They were walked over to three soldiers who laid them down and cut their heads off with a curved knife about 30 centimetres in length. Four men in civilian clothes, presumably prisoners, then loaded the heads onto one truck and put the decapitated corpses onto another. *1773
The prisoners in the truck described Jedinstvo School as a three-story building with all of the windows covered over or opaqued. Two livestock transport trucks were parked on the square at the time that they were there. *1774
Jezerce: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) Jezerce is a village near Sanica Donja. Villagers of Sanica Donja were initially detained at Jezerce upon their arrest in late June 1992. They were accounted for by name and loaded onto a truck heading for Sanski Most. *1775 They stopped en route at Jedinstvo School as described above.
Sanica Elementary School: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) There is also a report of a camp at the Sanica Elementary School. *1776 From the report, it appears that the school is somewhere in the Kljuc region, but there is no indication of its exact whereabouts. Apparently, villagers from Batonjici, Crnolici, and Gornji Budelj were held there. The witness explains that sometime near the end of June 1992, every man from the village of Gornja Sanica was arrested by «Serbian soldiers» and taken to Sanica Elementary School. There, they were held for two nights. During this time, they were not given any food and were beaten and tortured. Then, he and 250 other men held at the school were transferred to Manjaca. *1777
| Associated notes | Previous part | Next part |