Prnjavor is located in northern BiH. According to 1991 census data, the population was 46,894. At that time, the population was reportedly 71.6 per cent Serb, 15.3 per cent Muslim, 5.7 per cent other, 3.7 per cent Croat, and 3.7 per cent Yugoslav. *3406
Village of Prnjavor: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the United States Government.) According to one source, the village of Prnjavor was turned into a concentration camp where all Muslims were confined to their homes. A source also heard rumours that refugees fleeing from Odzak and Modrica had been rounded-up by Serbs and sent to two camps, one of which was located at Prnjavor, which was reportedly made to contain women and children. *3407
Another report offered by a Muslim man taken to «Prnjavor Camp», and apparently held there from 16 May to 14 July 1992, described beatings by Serbian military police. Reportedly, he saw one man die during a beating on 17 May 1992 and another die on 6 June 1992. The alleged killers were members of groups called White Eagles or White Wolves. *3408
Prozor is located in the central part of BiH. The pre-war population of the city and county of Prozor was 19,601. Approximately 62.3 per cent was Croat and 37.7 per cent was Muslim. *3409
Prozor Detention: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) In October and November 1992, there were reports of arbitrary detentions of Muslims by Croat forces during clashes between Croat and BiH forces in and around Prozor. In one such incident, a Muslim boy was reportedly detained by HVO (Croatian Defence Council) military police and was reportedly only released four days later when his father and others surrendered their arms. *3410
Apparently, the ICRC regularly visited prisoners held by Bosnian Croat authorities in Prozor at some time in the early part of 1993 and/or earlier. Although, the ICRC reported finding no prisoners detained by Bosnian Croat authorities in Prozor on 13 April 1993, *3411 just three months later, on 10 July 1993, another ICRC report suggests that Red Cross representatives visited 22 prisoners held in Prozor by Bosnian Croat authorities. *3412
According to another report, on 26 August 1993, an ECMM team observed 25 prisoners or civilian internees digging trenches close to the front line in Trnovaca. The team protested, in vain, to HVO authorities in Prozor. *3413
On 30 August 1993, a meeting took place in order to arrange an exchange of prisoners that would include HVO prisoners captured by the BiH Army at Prozor. *3414
Prison/Penitentiary: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The ICRC reported visiting a prison/penitentiary in Prozor on 30 January 1993. *3415 Their report was, however, silent as to the conditions, treatment and number of detainees present at the facility.
Technical School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) On 9 September 1993, an ECMM team visited an HVO POW camp located at the town's technical school, 100 metres from HVO headquarters. This camp was not a military detention camp but a detention camp for civilian internees. At the time of the visit, there were reportedly 228 civilians imprisoned at this facility. *3416
Reportedly, the prisoners had to dig trenches almost every day in the area of Trnovaca. At least four of the prisoners had reportedly been killed in the process. In the absence of the camp guards, the internees mentioned that they thought that approximately 40 to 60 people had been killed while working in the trenches. That assertion remained unconfirmed. *3417
The ECMM team reported that in general the prisoners had been treated well. They were not lacking food or water. Their living conditions appeared to be fairly reasonable. They had adequate washing and sanitary facilities. *3418 The ECMM team reported that they occasionally picked up and delivered mail for the detainees. *3419
Local authorities reportedly promised to provide members of the ECMM team with a list of names of all war prisoners detained as well as the names of all of the Muslims who remained in the area. *3420
In a letter dated 19 August 1993, the BiH Ambassador to the United Nations reported that Bosnian Muslim men were being held by HVO militiamen in a concentration camp in a Prozor High school complex. *3421
Additionally, the ICRC reported visiting a school in Prozor on 8 October 1993. *3422 Their report was, however, silent as to the conditions, treatment and number of detainees present at the facility.
Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) According to one report, representatives from the ICRC first visited a detention facility established in a factory in this area on 19 October 1993. *3423 The report was silent with respect to conditions and the operation of the facility.
The ECMM team also reported a visit to two factories where some 40 internees are working and living. Their living conditions were reportedly quite good and they were permitted limited free access to the city. *3424
Atomic Shelter: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In a letter dated 19 August 1993, the BiH Ambassador to the United Nations reported that Bosnian Muslim men were being held by HVO militias in a concentration camp in Prozor at an Atomic shelter. *3425
UNIS: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) In a letter dated 19 August 1993, it was alleged that Bosnian Muslim men were being held by HVO militias in a concentration camp in Prozor at UNIS. *3426
Fire-fighter's House: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Also in the letter dated 19 August 1993, the BiH Ambassador to the United Nations reported that Bosnian Muslim men were being held by HVO militias in a concentration camp in Prozor at a Fire-fighters' house. *3427 Additional information regarding procedures and conditions at this facility were not provided.
According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, Rogatica had a population of approximately 22,000 before the conflict: 60 per cent were Bosnian Muslims and 40 per cent were Bosnian Serbs. Currently, very few Bosnian Muslims remain in Rogatica. *3428
The fighting in Rogatica apparently began on 22 May 1992, *3429 and lasted approximately two months. *3430 Once the fighting started, Muslims could not leave the city. *3431
There were allegedly as many as 12 detention facilities in Rogatica. Reports suggest that mainly Serbs controlled these facilities, and that the prisoners were primarily Muslim civilians. As many as 4,513 people allegedly were detained. *3432
Under the leadership of the commander of the local Serbian paramilitary forces, Serbs apparently began detaining Muslim civilians in late May 1992. *3433 It is unclear how long this process continued, but there are reports that Serbs still were detaining Muslim civilians in late July and early August 1992. *3434
Witnesses report that in late May 1992 Serbian forces told Muslims to come to the city stadium or the high school. *3435 Those Muslims who refused to leave their homes were taken to the stadium by force. *3436 Serbian forces then sent Muslims to various detention facilities. Men and women were separated and sent to different locations. *3437 There are also reports that some men were forcibly conscripted into the Serbian irregular forces. *3438
Allegedly, large numbers of these detainees were released or exchanged from late June 1992 through early August 1992. *3439 According to reports from September 1992, it is estimated that 500 prisoners were exchanged from Rogatica, Foca, Kalinovik, and Miljevina. *3440 Presently, it is unclear how many people, if any, are still detained in Rogatica.
Witness statements allege that people detained in Rogatica were killed, raped, and beaten. In particular, there are several reports that Serbian forces raped Muslim women and girls while they were in detention. *3441
Church/Priest's Garage/Priory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Several reports indicate that Serbian forces operated a detention facility on the grounds of a church in Rogatica. *3442 These reports described this facility as a church, a priest's garage, and a priory. *3443 It is unclear how long Serbian forces have used this facility. However, one woman stated that she and her family were imprisoned in the priest's garage from 20 July through 23 July (presumably 1992). *3444
One report states that at least 23 people were imprisoned at the church. *3445 Men may have been separated from women. Upon arrival, one witness stated that her father was taken away immediately to an undisclosed location. *3446 The present status of the detention facility is unclear. Reportedly, on 23 July, 23 of the remaining prisoners were taken to the high school centre. *3447
Girls and women detained at the church were reportedly raped. *3448 Another report claims that Serbs also brought women detained at other facilities to the church in order to rape them. *3449 Functionaries of the regional Serbian paramilitary headquarters allegedly used the church grounds to rape young girls and women they abducted from a school detention facility. *3450
Donje Polje Cellar, Garage, and House: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Serbian forces allegedly held at least 40 Muslims in a large cellar, garage, and house in the Serbian community of Donje Polje. *3451 Purportedly, many of the Muslims reported to Donje Polje after being ordered by Serbs to do so to avoid the possibility of hardship which could befall them during this transitional period. They were assured that they would be safe while Serbian forces searched their houses. *3452 Upon the group's arrival in Donje Polje, Muslim citizens were allegedly locked in an unidentified cellar. *3453
For the first hours of their detention, the Muslims appeared to receive good treatment. According to one report, two women offered the adults coffee and gave the children bread and jam. *3454 A representative of the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) also visited the detainees to reassure them of their safety. *3455
However, the treatment of the prisoners seemed to worsen. Later that first day, two Serbian soldiers arrested 15 Muslim men who were in the cellar and took them away. *3456 It is unclear where they were taken. In the evening, another man moved the remaining prisoners to a garage on the same street. He then moved them into a house because it was cold that night. *3457 For the remainder of their detention, the Serbs gave the Muslim children some biscuits, but did not give any food to the adults. *3458 The following day, at approximately 3:00 p.m., the remaining Muslim detainees were bused to the Sladara factory. *3459 However, they were made to remain on the bus. *3460 After some time, the detainees were transported to Kaljina, near Olovo, and released. *3461
Malt Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) One report states that men were detained at a Malt Factory in Rogatica. *3462 The report's detail suggests that the Malt Factory, the Sladara Factory, and the Sarajevo Brewery may be different names for the same location. Allegedly, over 500 detainees at the factory were executed and 100 people remain imprisoned. *3463
Old Primary School in Borike: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none neutral.) Some reports state that a detention facility is located at an old primary school in Borike. *3464 Other reports, which describe a detention facility at an unidentified primary school in Rogatica, also may identify the old primary school. *3465 According to one witness statement, the old building, presumably the old primary school, has two floors, and four or five classrooms on each floor. *3466
Penitentiary/Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC.) The International Committee of the Red Cross states that its representatives visited a detention facility established in a prison in Rogatica on 27 July 1993. *3467 Their report provided no other information on the conditions or control of the prison facility.
Podosoje Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) Reports indicate that Serbian forces operated a detention facility at Podosoje. *3468 According to several reports, including one dated October 1992, approximately 2,300 people are detained at Pososoje. *3469 Allegedly, Serbian forces transferred several of the men detained at the Sladara Factory to this facility. *3470
Pticiljak Camp: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Allegedly Serbian forces detained Muslim men at this location. *3471 A report states that several men who were first taken to the Veljko Vlahovic High School immediately were transported to this location. *3472
Ragib Djindo Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none neutral.) Allegedly, the Ragib Djindo school was used to detain over 500 people. *3473 Ragib Djindo, Rogatica's new primary school building, is located near Sladara. *3474 It has a lobby and 112 classrooms. *3475
One report states that local Serbs were the parties that used a primary school to detain Muslims. *3476 However, it is unclear whether this report refers to Ragib Djindo, Borike, or another school in Rogatica. This same report also states that Serbs beat, raped, and burned prisoners at the school. *3477 Other reports, which describe a detention facility at an unnamed primary school in Rogatica, also may identify the Ragib Dzindo school. *3478
Sarajevo Brewery: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Serbian forces allegedly used a silo at the Sarajevo Brewery as a detention facility. *3479 The report concerning this facility was silent regarding prisoner identity, conditions of detention or length of the facility's existence.
Sladara Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none neutral.) Serbian forces reportedly operated a detention facility for Muslim men at the Sladara Factory. *3480 It is possible that as many as 500 people were detained at this location. *3481 According to some reports, Serbian detention of Muslims followed a pattern in which men were separated from their families and sent to the Sladara Factory. *3482 Then, after spending an unspecified length of time at Sladara, some detainees were allegedly transferred to another detention facility at Podosj. *3483
Sugar Refinery: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none neutral.) According to reports, a detention facility was identified at a sugar refinery in Rogatica. *3484 No additional information was provided regarding the facility's operation or control.
Veljko Vlahovic High School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Serbian forces operated a detention facility for Muslims--primarily women and children--at the Veljko Vlahovic High School in Rogatica. *3485 Reports indicate that Serbian forces used this high school as a detention facility from at least May through August 1992. *3486
It is likely that local Serbian paramilitary forces initially controlled the high school. *3487 Reports indicate that in late May 1992, the commander of the local Serbian paramilitary forces, issued an order for Rogatica's Muslims to gather at the high school. *3488 At about the same time, Serbian forces allegedly placed an identified person in charge of the detainees. *3489 Additionally, the Serbs allegedly obtained the cooperation of some local Muslim families. *3490
However, following the arrival of Arkan's soldiers toward the end of June and approximately 150 members of a Serbian paramilitary force from Backa Palanka in mid-July, it is unclear whether this person still controlled the high school. *3491 From July through August 1992, various groups of Serbian soldiers appear to have been able to harass the detainees without any restrictions. *3492
In addition to recognizing Arkan's soldiers among the high school authorities, witnesses reported that they saw members of Seselj's White Eagles at the high school. *3493
From late May 1992 through early August 1992, Serbian forces allegedly ordered Muslim civilians in Rogatica to gather at the high school. Reports state that Muslim men then were taken to the Sladara factory. *3494 There are also reports that upon arrival at the high school, Serbian forces separated the men and took them to Pticiljak. *3495 Serbian forces supposedly intended the high school to be a detention facility for mainly Muslim women, children, and elderly, as well as prisoners from Gracanica. *3496
Beginning 25 May 1992, the commander of the local Serbian paramilitary forces, allegedly used loudspeakers to warn all Muslim civilians to gather at the high school. *3497 Apparently about 300 people responded. *3498 Shortly thereafter, on 6 June 1992, Muslims again were warned to gather at the high school. *3499 At that time, Serbian forces began to arrest Muslim civilians who had not responded to the previous announcements. *3500
Toward the end of June, there were approximately 300 people at the high school, about 50 of whom had come there voluntarily. *3501 However, the number of detainees quickly decreased. At the end of June 1992, Serbian authorities allegedly decided to transfer about 250 of the 300 remaining detainees to Olovo and neighbouring villages. *3502 Reports state that 57 people remained at the high school. *3503
Serbian forces continued to take Muslims to the high school throughout July and the early days of August. At the beginning of July, a new group of civilians arrived from Seljani, Rakitnica, and Kovanj. *3504 Then, in mid-July, Serbs again reportedly began to order Muslim civilians to the high school. *3505 Serbs also consolidated prisoners from other locations at the high school. On 23 July 1992, 23 of the remaining prisoners at the church allegedly were taken to the high school. *3506 On the same day, Serbian forces also reportedly took Muslim families from their homes to the high school. *3507 There are also several reports that Serbs took Muslims from their homes to the high school on 29 July 1992. *3508 Additionally, several reports state that Serbs took Muslim civilians to the high school through the last days of July until 4 August 1992. *3509 By 7 August 1992, the number of prisoners again reached 300. *3510
In early August, the Serbian authorities again reportedly released prisoners. On 2 August 1992, several prisoners allegedly were transported to Visoko. *3511 On 5 August 1992, reports indicate that a large group of the remaining detainees were transported to Hresa, outside Sarajevo. *3512 Once in Hresa, reports also mention that Serbian positions fired on the detainees as they were released. *3513 In Vratnik, they were greeted by the armed forces of BiH. *3514 The last report of anyone transported out of the high school is on 8 August 1992. *3515
Serbian soldiers allegedly raped many women detained at the high school. *3516 There are numerous reports of Serbian soldiers taking women and girls from the classrooms and returning them in the morning. *3517 One report alleges that over 100 women were repeatedly gang raped at the school. *3518 Reportedly, some women also became pregnant after being raped. *3519 They allegedly were taken to the ecumenical centre and released. *3520
Reports stated that Serbs from Pale, Rogatica, Sokolac, and Serbia raped women at the school. *3521 Numerous reports identify individuals supposedly responsible for sexual assaults of the detainees in the camp. *3522
The majority of reported sexual assaults allegedly occurred sometime after late June 1992. In particular, reports point to a period of intense abuse of the detainees between 29 July 1992 and 5 August 1992 when women were raped every evening. *3523 Many women allegedly were raped on multiple evenings as well as raped by more than one person on a single evening. One Muslim woman reported that she was raped 12 times in five nights. *3524 Another woman reportedly was raped one night by five Serbs. *3525
Most of the sexual assaults allegedly followed a similar pattern in which pairs of Serbian paramilitary members would enter the detainees' classrooms at approximately 11:00 p.m., select certain women, and take them into other rooms of the school where they would rape them. *3526 There also are reports of Serbs taking women from classrooms at any time between 12:45 a.m. and 2:00 a.m.. *3527 Additionally, Serbs allegedly took women from the classrooms and raped them in the cellar of the high school, local apartments, and automobiles. *3528
There is little information on how women were chosen as victims. One report states that two Serbian paramilitary members would decide who would be raped. *3529 This report also mentions that some Serbs would request women as victims based on their photos. *3530
In many instances, the victims also were beaten as they were raped. *3531 One woman reports that her assailants beat her with boots and guns, and threatened her with a knife. *3532 Another Muslim woman reports that she was beaten and kicked while she was raped. *3533
Rape also was used as a tool of interrogation. One Muslim woman states that she was raped while being interrogated by an identified commander. *3534
Beyond the reports of sexual assault, witnesses also allege that detainees at the high school were killed, beaten, robbed, threatened, and forcibly converted to Serbian Orthodox. Like the rapes, the mistreatment of the prisoners increased after the end of June 1992. *3535
There are a few reports of murders and disappearances. On 8 June 1992, three people allegedly were executed by members of the Serbian irregular forces. *3536 It is unclear whether they were killed at the school or some other location. *3537 In particular, one witness states that an identified man killed an identified woman. *3538 Additionally, at the end of June, one person was taken away and never seen again. *3539 An identified man also allegedly had burned and killed. *3540
According to reports, the detaineees at the high school were physically assaulted. There are several reports of Serbian forces beating women, often when these women were trying to protect others from being raped. *3541 The detainess were beaten without weapons and with rifle butts. *3542
The high school authorities also forced the detainees to perform dangerous and degrading acts. One woman reports that she was spared from being raped, but forced to commit various «immoral acts». *3543 Two men allegedly forced another Muslim woman to sit on an anti-tank mine and to jump from a third floor window. *3544 One of these made women drink alcohol, deciding how much and how fast they had to drink. *3545 He also allegedly forced women try to commit suicide. *3546
There are reports that the high school authorities looted the detainees. Several detainees report that they were forced to surrender their jewelry. *3547 Two identified men were most often reported as the perpetrators of these crimes. *3548
There are several reports that the prisoners were exposed to various threats and psychic tortures. *3549 In particular, there are several reports of high school authorities, most often the two men mentioned above, trying to force prisoners to convert to Serbian Orthodox. *3550 Additionally, three identified people reportedly would ask people to convert, and tell them that those who converted would stay alive and that the others would die. *3551
Despite the reports of rape, murder, and battery, there are several reports that some of the Serbian paramilitary guards treated prisoners well. Reportedly, the person who originally was responsible for the security of the inmates, treated all of the detainees well. *3552 However, the conditions, and his control, of the camp allegedly deteriorated with the arrival of about 150 paramilitary Serbs from Backa Palanka in early July. *3553
Witnesses also report that a number of guards protected some of the detainees. A guard who was a friend of one Muslim woman's husband, allegedly allowed her to sleep at a nearby apartment, in order to prevent her from being raped. *3554 There also are reports that he provided food for the detainees, and gave Muslims Serbian travel passes so that they could flee to safety. *3555 Lastly, he allegedly saved some detainees from a plan to execute them. *3556 Another woman's testimony states that one of the men accused of war crimes at this location protected her from attacks by other guards. *3557 Lastly, one woman claims that another man protected her from being raped and beaten. *3558
Although some guards may have respectfully treated the detainees, the conditions at the high school were generally poor. The detainees allegedly were held in classrooms containing anywhere from 17 to 57 people. *3559 Some groups of detainees allegedly were prevented from having contact with other inmates. *3560
Sleeping conditions at the camp were very simple. One group of 21 people allegedly were detained in a classroom where they slept without blankets on cement floors. *3561 Other reports also stated that detainees had no place to sleep, or could only sleep on the floor. *3562
Apparently, food at the high school was scarce. One group of detainees states that there was no food or medicine at the school when they arrived. *3563 There also is a report which states that there was no water, *3564 and another which claims that some guards refused to give water to prisoners. *3565 Other reports stated that they did not receive food for several days, and described the supplies that they did receive as insufficient. *3566
However, there also are reports that the Serbian authorities provided some supplies. Between 8 June and 24 July 1992, one group allegedly was given small amounts of food every 15 days. *3567 These supplies included 110 kilograms of flour, five litres of oil, three to four kilograms of rice and beans, and approximately 50 packages of pasta. *3568 Another group of 21 people reports that on 1 August 1992, the fourth day of their captivity, the prison authorities provided them with 20 kilograms of flour, one-half litre of oil, and one-half kilogram of rice. *3569 Lastly, one witness states that between 30 July 1992 and 5 August 1992 a group of several detainees was given one-half kilogram of rice, one-half litre of cooking oil, and 20 kilograms of flour. *3570 This witness also reports that there was a stove at the high school, and that some of the detainees were allowed to cook meals. *3571
The prison authorities also allowed the detainees to find their own food. Between 8 June 1992 and 24 July 1992, approximately 50 detainees who lived close to the school were allowed to go home to get some food and clothing. *3572
Nonetheless, the supplies at the high school may not have been sufficient. There were a few reports that detainees died from lack of food or medicine. One woman who originally was not allowed to bring her medicine to the school may have died from starvation. *3573 There also is another report that a woman starved to death, but it is unclear whether she died while she was in detention. *3574
This municipality is located on the eastern border of BiH, adjacent to Serbia. Its neighbour to the north is Visegrad and its neighbour to the south is Cajnice. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, Rudo county had a population of 11,572; of that 27.2 per cent were Muslims, 70.8 per cent were Serbs and the remaining 2 per cent were described as «others».
Reports indicate that there may have been as many as four detention facilities operating in Rudo; however, information regarding Rudo prison and Rudo camp may, in fact, be describing the same location. Bosnian Serb authorities allegedly operated Rudo prison, but the evidence does not indicate the ethnicity of the parties who operated the other facilities.
Although one report states that Bosnians were detained in Rudo prison, other reports lack any information about the ethnicity of detainees. Even though there is no information about the number of detainees at two of the three sites, at least 22 prisoners were reportedly detained in Rudo.
Barracks: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) Reportedly, the barracks in Rudo has operated as a detention facility. *3575
Old Railway Station: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.) A detention facility allegedly was located at the old railway station in Rudo. *3576
Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) One report indicates that Bosnian Serb authorities have operated a detention facility at Rudo prison, where as many as 18 prisoners were held. *3577 Other reports describe a Serbian operated detention facility called Rudo camp, which has held as many as 21 Bosnians. *3578 These reports may describe the same facility.
One report about Rudo camp details abuse of detainees. A Muslim who was detained in Rudo camp with 21 other Bosnians said that all of the men in his camp had been beaten regularly. *3579 Men allegedly would be taken from their room for interrogation and would return disfigured, in some cases with ears, fingers, or noses cut off. *3580
Sanski Most is located in north-west BiH. In 1991 its population was 60,119. Of that, 47 per cent were Muslim, 42.2 per cent Serbian, 7.1 per cent Croatian, and 3.7 per cent were described as «other».
There are reports of 11 Serbian-run detention facilities in this region. They are as follows: Betonirka, the concrete factory at Sanski Most, Hasan Kikic Primary School, Kamengrad, Krings Factory, Kriva Cesta Police Station, Narodni Front Primary School, the police station in Sanski Most, Sana camp, Sportski Centar, and Vrhpolje. These camps held both Muslim and Croatian prisoners, many of whom were later sent on to Manjaca and Doboj camps.
Camps were established and prisoners detained as part of a greater campaign of «ethnic cleansing» in the region. This campaign began in December 1991 and continued until the complete shelling of the city in late May 1992. At first, Serbian authorities demobilized all Muslim and Croatian militia, police, and security forces that were then active in the area. *3581 Then, in April, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) requested that the Department of Internal Security (SUP) divide along ethnic lines and form completely separate departments. The Croatian and Muslim officers of the SUP refused the proposed division. *3582
Soon after, 500 uniformed Serbian reservists from the 6th Krajiska Brigade arrived in the city. *3583 They surrounded the SUP administration building, took over the radio station, post office, bank, and power station. Non-Serbian police officers were told to leave their jobs and go home. *3584 All surrounding villages were also targeted for «ethnic cleansing». Civilians were asked to surrender their weapons and all movement in the region was closely monitored.
Then, on 23 May 1992 Serbian inhabitants were evacuated from the city. *3585 A couple days later Sanski Most was completely blockaded by tanks, armoured vehicles, and Serbian troops. *3586 On the afternoon of the 27th, non-Serbian inhabitants were given an ultimatum to vacate their homes and gather in an open field or risk being killed. *3587 Then, white sheets were put on the roofs of their houses. *3588 At about 10:00 p.m., mortars were aimed at these homes, and anyone who had not left them were killed. Apparently, a number of elderly civilians died during this initial bombing. *3589
This campaign of «ethnic cleansing» was carried out by the 6th Sanski Most Brigade or Krajiska Brigade, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), and local Serbs. *3590 Organizers that are specifically named include: the head of the SDS and later installed as the president of Sanski Most County; *3591 the man in charge of all camps and detention centres established in the region, commander of the 6th Sanski Most Brigade which was responsible for executing the plans developed by the other two men; *3592 commander of the paramilitary organization called Srpske Oruzane Snage (SOS) which was made up of local Serbs; and the local leader of the Serbian radical party loyal to Vojislav Seselj. *3593
Fifteen other men were named. *3594
Betonirka: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none neutral.) One report states that 500 Muslim prisoners, mostly from the city of Sanski Most, were detained at this camp. *3595 During their captivity, they were severely beaten, and some were killed. *3596 Another report refers to this camp as one of «evil repute» where a certain Martic from Uljevci was well-known for taking part in activities against prisoners. *3597 Many of the prisoners from here were ultimately sent on to Manjaca camp. *3598
Concrete factory in Sanski Most: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Government of Denmark.) Another report claims that 120 Muslim men from the Mahala suburb of Sanski Most were detained at a concrete factory near the police station in Sanski Most beginning 27 May 1992. They were ultimately transferred to the Manac or Manjaca camp, *3599 yet some died upon their arrival at Manac because they had been beaten so severely during their stay at the concrete factory. *3600
Hasan Kikic Primary School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Muslim prisoners were brought to this school upon the attacks of their villages. Men were kept here while women and children were transferred to Velika Kladusa. Approximately 1,200 men were held here for a 50- day period. *3601 During this time, they were interrogated and tortured before being transferred to Manjaca camp. *3602
The school had no toilets or other facilities, and prisoners were not given food. *3603 Some outsiders were allowed to bring food to the camp, but most of it never reached the prisoners because it was stolen by Serb guards. *3604 Prisoners were often beaten and forced to beat each other. One man reports that he was beaten regularly with chair legs and rubber batons during his detention between 27 May and 7 July. *3605
Frequently, unidentified «bearded and blood covered» Serb irregulars came to the school with knives demanding to kill prisoners, yet they were unable to get to them because police guards would not let them in. *3606
Kamengrad: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Government of France.) Kamengrad is reported to be a «mixed camp» in Sanski Most. *3607 Women were allegedly raped and sexually abused at this camp. *3608 There is no further information.
Krings Factory: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC.) The Krings factory building is located 2.5 to five kilometres west of Sanski Most. This factory is described as both a former fabric hall and an iron works factory and is in the industrial zone of Sanski Most on the road to Bosanska Krupa. An auto factory called Famos is to the west of it, and a factory that use to make elevators is to the east. *3609 Apparently, the building was previously used by military forces. *3610 The ICRC reported visiting the detention facility at the Krings factory. *3611
The facility is surrounded by a one metre high wire fence, its perimeter comprised of an area about 160 by 100 metres. *3612 There are two structures in the compound: a small office and the detention facility itself. The single story office building is approximately eight by six metres and is in the north-west corner of the compound. It has five small rooms which were used for interrogations. *3613
The detention facility is 50 by 100 metres and is 10 metres high. It is built of brick with glass-paned windows and has two entrances. The one on the north-western front consists of two large doors which open outward. These doors are large enough to let cars in. A second entrance on the west end of the building is smaller and permits only individual access. Its doors open inward. There is a third entrance which also has auto access on the south side, but its doors were kept locked at all times. Finally, there is a dog pen attached to the north-eastern corner of the building. *3614
Muslim and Croatian prisoners from Brisevo, Sanski Most, Hrustovo, Vrhpolje, and Stari Majdan as well as those transferred from the Kamengrad and Sportski Centar camps were held at this factory. There is one report that claims that wealthy, intellectual, and professional individuals were singled out to be brought to Krings. *3615
Two thousand of the prisoners from Sanski Most came in summer 1992. They had been ordered to gather at the marketplace in front of Sanski Most town hall sometime in June. At that point, military buses took them to Krings. *3616 When they arrived, prisoners from Hrustovo and Vrhpolje were already at the factory.
There are two reports of prisoners coming from Stari Majdan. One states that 150 prisoners arrived on 7 June 1992. *3617 Another claims that men from Stari Majdan also arrived on 30 July or 1 August with prisoners from Brisevo. *3618 It is not clear when prisoners from the other camps were transferred to the factory, but it is certain that they were detained at the factory during this same time. All in all, approximately 1,000 people are said to have been held at the camp *3619, and an additional 3,000 to 5,000 passed through it during the period from May to September 1992. *3620
At the factory, men were separated from the women, children, and elderly. The men were put in the large detention building, lined up, and registered by name. *3621
They received no food or water. *3622 They slept on the floor and there were no toilets. *3623 People were beaten with clubs, canes, thick knotted ropes, chains, army boots, and rifles. Apparently, many people choked from internal bleeding as a result of the beatings. *3624 Also, the prisoners were forced to sing Serbian nationalist songs. Those from the villages of Hrustovo and Vrhpolje were beaten particularly severely while singing. *3625 Furthermore, they were told that their daughters had been raped in order to humiliate them in front of the other men. *3626 Well over 100 people are reported to have been killed at the factory. *3627
Prisoners were interrogated throughout their detention. Apparently, there were always at least five guards and five interrogators at the factory. The interrogator squad consisted of three military personnel and two policemen. *3628 During questioning, prisoners were asked about their private lives, political views, places of work, ownership of weapons, and positions of Muslim units and arms. *3629 Two individuals were named in connection with the interrogations. *3630
The camp was guarded by men wearing JNA uniforms, presumed to be members of the reserve army. The leader of the camp was identified by one name. *3631 Later on, in July the army soldiers were replaced by men in dark blue police uniforms. The police force was led by an identified man from Sanski Most. *3632 Five other policemen were named. *3633
In addition to these individuals, there were other unidentified military personnel who were present at the camp. One such figure came at night to inspect the camp. He wore a plain green uniform, with an «unusually tall hat similar to that of the cossacks.» *3634 On the hat was pinned a «Cetnik» symbol unknown to the witness and other prisoners. The man carried a machine-gun with him. *3635 Another individual identified only as «Martic» came to the camp in early August dressed in an army uniform and started kicking all of the prisoners. *3636
It appears that Krings closed down sometime near September 1992. Men were either released or transferred to Manjaca. *3637 One witness relates that he was released on 20 August with 250 other prisoners. The men were let go two at a time and were allowed to move freely around Sanski Most. They were issued written permission by the 6th Krajiska Brigade. This permission was signed by an identified man. *3638
The mayor of Sanski Most and founder of the SDS and the chairman of SDP, are named as having full knowledge of the activities at the factory during its operation. *3639
Kriva Cesta Police Station: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Department of State.) One witness explains being held at a police station called Kriva Cesta three kilometres outside of Sanski Most on the road to Kljuc. *3640 It is not clear whether this is the central Sanski Most station described in more details by others or not. See Police Station in Sanski Most below for more information.
Narodni Front School: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Government of Denmark.) Two thousand civilians of the Mahala suburb of Sanski Most were brought to the gym of this school upon the severe shelling of their neighbourhoods on 27 May 1992. *3641 Women and children were immediately released, but the men stayed for up to two weeks. It appears that the school was a sort of collecting centre because the names and addresses of all men were registered by the local police, and then they were released. *3642
Another source reports that only 500 prisoners were actually «detained» at the school. *3643
Police Headquarters at Sanski Most: (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State.) Upon the attack of Sanski Most by Serbian forces, men were arrested and taken to the basement of police headquarters. There, they were interrogated and beaten for days. Thirty-three non-Serbian police officers were brought to police headquarters. Seventeen of them were killed during interrogations; eight were sent on to Manjaca, and four managed to escape. *3644
Some men were brought from other camps at night to be interrogated and beaten. One ex-prisoner claims that men were taken two a night from Sportski Centa to the police station. *3645 There, they were beaten with shovel handles and hit in the stomach. *3646
The ICRC reported visiting the Sanski Most Police Station twice, once on 6 August 1992 and another time on 10 October 1992. *3647 In August, representatives reported seeing 13 prisoners, and in October they saw only one. *3648
Sana camp: The existence of this camp has not been corroborated by multiple sources. This camp was located in a workshop of the ceramic factory at Sanski Most. *3649 Many prisoners came to Sana from Caplje and Tomina and stayed for a short period before being transferred on to Kozarac or Doboj. *3650
At the Sana camp, men between the ages of 15 and 60 years old were separated from the women, children, and elderly. The women, children, and elderly usually spent one night at the camp before being sent on to Doboj while the men stayed for a bit longer. *3651
There are reports that some people were killed arbitrarily during their initial detention. *3652 Others died during their transfer to other camps because they received no food or water on the truck cargos. Many, particularly the elderly, died from lack of air and water at this time. *3653
One report describes the transport of a particular group of men from Sana camp to Tomina where they were killed at the bridge near the entrance of town. Apparently, the cargo trucks stopped at the bridge, and the men were ordered off. Then, the prisoners were told to undress and were fired on as they scrambled underneath the bridge. *3654
Sportski centar: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State. Muslim prisoners from Sanski Most were forced to gather at the sports centre on the outskirts of town in late May 1992 when the Serbs took over the city. From that time on, thousands of people passed through this camp, and it is estimated that up to 3,000 people were detained here at one time. *3655 Again, women, children, and the elderly were immediately separated from the men and let go after one night. *3656 Most of the men were ultimately transferred to Manjaca.
Family members that were released were allowed to bring food to the camp, but this food was often stolen by guards and never reached the detainees. Furthermore, those bringing it risked being beaten and killed because they would be falsely accused of smuggling in weapons. *3657 The prisoners received no other food at the camp, and one witness reports that a man died of starvation during his detention there. *3658
Apparently, the sports hall was divided into two sections, one larger than the other. *3659 There is also alleged to have been a «special interrogation house» where detainees were beaten and tortured. In this «house,» prisoners were asked where all of their possessions were, and many were executed. *3660
The centre was guarded by Serbian police, military personnel, and local Serb civilians. *3661 They beat people with bats, rifle butts, and kicked them with steel-toed boots. *3662 One specific perpetrator in activities against prisoners was named. *3663 Apparently, he ordered many of the beatings at the centre.
During their short detention, two prisoners a night were taken from the sports centre to the police station to be interrogated. *3664
Vrhpolje: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the UK Defence Debriefing Team Report. Vrhpolje is a village approximately 12 kilometres south-east of Sanski Most. An unknown number of prisoners were held at a camp there. *3665
Sarajevo consists of several distinct counties or areas. They include, Centar, Hadzici, Ilidza, Ilijas, Novi grad, Novo, Pale, Stari grad, Trnovo, and Vogosca. There were many camps in the Sarajevo area, run by all three ethnic groups and housing all three ethnic groups. However, the majority of reports concern Muslim-run camps, housing Bosnian Serbs.
Fighting broke out in the area on 5 April 1992, the eve of a meeting of European Community Ministers, who were expected to recognize BiH as an independent state. At 2:00 p.m. a deadline set by Serbian leaders for cancellation of a full mobilization of the Republic's Territorial Defence and police reserve forces *3666 expired. As the deadline expired, thousands of people reportedly took to the streets in spontaneous peace marches, and Sarajevo television began running appeals for ethnic amity. One group of marchers was shot at by unidentified gunmen. *3667 At that point, full-scale fighting broke out. *3668
Shortly after fighting broke out, many detention centres reportedly sprang up. There are multiple reports of private prisons run from basements of apartment buildings, shopping centres, offices, and in garages all around the region. There were also several larger camps run by the BiH government and the Bosnian Serb Army.
As of August 1993, the Special Rapporteur to the United Nations Human Rights Commission estimated that 100 to 150 people were detained in the government controlled area of Sarajevo, and a similar number were detained by Bosnian Serb forces in the area controlled by them. He stated that the ICRC learned of detention months after such detention began or took place, because the authorities on all sides notify the ICRC only after they have been specifically ordered to do so. *3669
There were reportedly many humanitarian law violations at the private detention facilities. Some of these small facilities were allegedly «bordellos», or sites where women were kept and raped and sexually assaulted for the gratification of the soldiers. *3670 Many of these allegations were very general, though some sources identified specific sites which were reportedly used for such purposes. *3671
Premises at Danila Ozme Street: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International. The BiH Government allegedly detained Serb women here for the purpose of rape. There is no information on when the site was opened, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were, but the site was closed at the end of August 1992. *3672
Premises at Cengic Vila: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International. The BiH Government allegedly detained Serb women here for the purpose of rape. *3673 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there or what the conditions were.
Railway Station: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Serbian girls were reportedly held here and raped. The submitting source stated that Muslims ran the site as part of a plan to get rid of all Serbs. *3674 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were.
Primary School Petar Djokic: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Serbian girls were allegedly held here and raped. The source stated that Muslims ran the site as part of a plan to get rid of all Serbs. *3675 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were.
Sports Centre Skenderija: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Serbian girls were allegedly detained here and raped. The source stated that Muslims ran the site as part of a plan to get rid of all Serbs. *3676 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were.
The Hotel Zagreb: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. The BiH Territorial Defence allegedly ran a «bordello» for Serbian girls and women here. *3677 In a separate submission the same source stated that Muslims ran the site as part of a plan to get rid of all Serbs. *3678 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were.
The Hotel Evropa: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. The BiH Territorial Defence allegedly ran a «bordello» for Serbian girls and women here. Muslims reportedly took one identified girl here in July 1992 from Breka after they killed her mother and father. *3679 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there or what the conditions were.
The Mladen Stojanovic Dormitory or Youth Hostel on Radiceva Street: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International. This site was located near the Sarajka department store. It was allegedly converted into the Security Service Centre Department in Sarajevo and was the first step for prisoners on the way to either the Viktor Bubanj barracks or the Central Prison. *3680 BiH Government forces reportedly operated the facility, where Serb women were allegedly detained and raped. *3681 According to one source, the Muslims strategic plan was to rid the area of all Serbs. *3682 There is no information on when the site was opened or closed, how many detainees were there, or what the conditions were.
School of Civil Engineering: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. The Republika Srpska identified a man who ran a camp here where 100 Serb women were allegedly detained and raped. *3683
Aerodrom: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Women were allegedly detained, raped, and killed here. *3684 No additional information regarding control or length of the facility's existence was made available.
Student Hostel in Vraca: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely The Guardian. Women were allegedly detained and raped here. *3685 No additional information regarding control or length of the facility's existence was made available.
Houses in Souolac: *3686 (the existence of these detention facilities have been corroborated by a neutral source, namely The Guardian.) Women were allegedly detained and raped here. *3687
Other small prisons housed both men and women. In these, the detainees were allegedly beaten, some killed, and some women were raped. *3688 There is little information on many of these sites.
Premises on Oktobarske Revolucije Street: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to a statement by two named witnesses, Serbian men were held here, one identified Serbian man was beaten to death with a mallet, and prisoners were used as live shields. *3689
Basement of Apartment Building at Trg Zavnobih-a: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A named Bosnian Serb witness stated that there were prison cells at this location two metres wide by 20 metres long. *3690 In one cell were 57 prisoners, 17 of whom were women. They lay on wooden pallets along the wall. Some reportedly had broken limbs and ribs, broken teeth, or head wounds. The witness stated that he was beaten because he was from Pale. During the day, he stated that dogs were brought in and forced to bite the prisoners. The witness identified two of the men who beat the prisoners as Senad and «Krusko.» *3691
Mladost, Trg Zavnobih-bb: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to a witness, in April, about 20 Serbs allegedly were arrested, mistreated, and tortured at a detention facility established in this public building. Two identified men were allegedly killed. The witness stated that the commander of the Territorial Defence in Sarajevo, was one of the perpetrators. *3692
Coca-Cola Plant, Raskrsce: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to a witness, this camp, located half way between Ilidza and Hadzici, was used as a processing plant for Bosnian Muslims before they were shipped to the stadium camp in Hadzici. *3693
Cafe Borsalino: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to one source, a detention facility was established in this Sarajevo cafe. This facility was reportedly run by the Bosnian Muslim commander of the Territorial Defence in Sarajevo. Individuals detained here were allegedly tortured and denied food and water. *3694
School of Electrical Engineering: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A witness stated that after being brought here, the guards confiscated his documents and all of his money. He reportedly later learned that Green Berets were found on Zuc mountain with all of his personal documents. *3695
Unidentified basement prison: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A named witness reported that he was arrested 6 May 1992 by Muslim Green Berets. He recalled witnessing the torture and forced confession of a fellow detainee. The witness stated that the prisoner was, thereafter, killed by an identified man. There were reportedly other Serbs present, who were also physically abused. *3696
Unidentified facility on Tetovska Street: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. In October 1992, a woman was allegedly taken from her home to a basement, which had been transformed into a containment area, in Tetovska street. During her detention, the woman was reportedly interrogated and raped by members of the Muslim army. *3697 She became pregnant and received an abortion in March 1993, in her 22nd week of pregnancy. *3698
Unidentified military prison: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the Paris Daily Liberation and the ICRC. According to Francois Didier of Paris' Daily Liberation, Serbian prisoners, who appeared to be civilians, were kept at a military prison for exchange. They reportedly had visible injuries. *3699 Another account involved a Serb man who saved a Muslim Imam during an attack on Dobrosevici and Ahatovici in June of 1992. This man stated that he was arrested by Territorial Defence Forces on 29 June 1992, and taken to this prison. He stated that he told the people who arrested him that he had saved the Imam, but he was taken to the military prison anyway. He gave no further details. *3700
Unidentified School: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A witness reported that her son's school in Sarajevo was now a prison and a bordello. She said that she never saw women, and could not say if Serb or Muslim women were held there. She stated that she saw members of the Muslim army enter the school and heard screams of women and men. *3701
Ramiz Salcin: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. According to one report, representatives of the ICRC visited a detention facility in Ramiz Salcin. The facility was established in a local prison/penitentiary and was in existence on 27 December 1993. No information was provided regarding the operation and control of this facility. *3702
Alipasino Polje: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International. There was at least one site of detention in this area in Sarajevo. Three Bosnian Serb male witnesses describe events occurring at «the prison at Alipasino Polje», indicating that there may have been only one. *3703 The fourth report states merely that Serbian women were raped by BiH Government forces on premises in this area. *3704 Because the other witnesses do not allege that women were raped at the prison where they were held, this may be another site.
The three witnesses each state that they were held in a prison run by the Muslim Territorial Defence Forces of BiH. The facility was reportedly used primarily for housing Bosnian Serbs. They also reported that both women and men were held there. *3705 One stated that there were 72 inmates. *3706 The witnesses did not describe conditions at the prison, but all three described beatings and killings. One man stated that he witnessed Muslim guards kill three men and saw guards interrogate another young man about weapons. When the young man replied he knew nothing about weapons, the guards allegedly tied him to a table and worked his anus over with a rasp. The witness stated that he saw the young man later in a pool of his own blood, still alive. *3707
The most detailed testimony was from a Serb man who said he was detained in a basement prison--called block B--for eight days. He claimed he was imprisoned for being a Serb. He said he was interrogated and beaten. The prison inspector questioned the witness about the names of other «Cetniks». When the witness stated that he knew a man with a particular name, he was beaten for 12 hours. The prison inspector reportedly watched the beating from a bed, rising from time to time to participate in the beating. The witness stated that he was put in a straight jacket twice and beaten with boards and a wooden stick. When he lost consciousness, the guards threw water over him. *3708
The witness also reported that the prison inspector urinated on his head and tried to force the witness to perform fellatio on him. When the witness refused, the prison inspector threatened him and took a stick, forcing it in and out of the witness' mouth, saying that this was what he did to Serb women with his penis. *3709 The witness stated that he was beaten again, and when returned to the other prisoners, was unable to move for three days. *3710
The witness was called two days later to sign a written statement. He wrote his original story and was beaten again. The prison inspector reportedly came to him, saying that he would be released if he would tell who collaborated with the «Cetniks». The prison inspector also said that many people were interceding on behalf of the witness including the management of the firm where he was employed. *3711 After eight days, the commander of the Territorial Defence came to the prison. He called out the names of each of the 72 detainees, one by one, and released them. The witness identified five guards who beat prisoners, and two guards he said did not beat prisoners. *3712
Electrotechnical School, Buca Potok: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. This prison was allegedly located at the Electrotechnical school in Buca Potok, on Prvomajska street. *3713 The prison was reportedly run by members of the Bosnian Muslim paramilitary group the Green Berets and the Territorial Defence of BiH. There were eight male detainees, seven of whom were Serb and one of whom was a Muslim, who allegedly intended to give a Serb a list of Muslims who should be killed. *3714
The sole account of this detention facility was provided by a Serb male. He stated that he was arrested on 17 May 1992, beaten and taken to the school. He recalled that there were some 30 armed individuals positioned in front of the facility. They reportedly ordered the prisoners to stand facing the wall, after which they were beaten. *3715 The witness and the six others arrested with him were taken to the basement. They were reportedly the only detainees there. The detainees were accused of owning radio transmitters and guiding Serb shells. One man, between 75 and 80 years old, died after being beaten for half an hour. Another man, about 75 years old, was brought in and killed by being beaten for an hour. The bodies of these two men were put into a sewer which emptied into the Miljacka river. *3716
The witness reported that the perpetrators stated they were from Foca, Gorazde, and Zvornik. The witness also stated that he overheard beatings of other prisoners by what sounded like elderly women. The witness did not describe other conditions at the prison, nor did he describe his release. *3717
Central Prison (National Prison): The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC. This prison was allegedly run by an identified man. *3718 An actor reportedly helped manage the prison, though he left at the beginning of August 1992. *3719 The commander of the fifth floor, where women were allegedly held, was also named. *3720 Ten other guards were identified. *3721 Finally, one source added that the commander of the Territorial Defence visited the prison. *3722 The reports regarding this site state that Serb detainees were held here from May 1992 *3723 until at least July 1992. *3724 One source stated that part of the prison was opened in September 1992 for inspection by humanitarian organizations. *3725 Both men and women were held at this site, and one report stated that even children were detained here. *3726 There is no indication of how many civilians and POWs were held here, or whether the detainees, whose statements were provided, were civilian or military prisoners. However, one report stated that a witness was kept in one room with 30 other Serb prisoners. *3727
Hygienic conditions were described as terrible. *3728 One report stated that detainees were fed tea, bread and a little bit of pasta. *3729 Another report stated that detainees were fed only once per day. *3730 Allegedly, detainees were given one litre of water every four days. *3731 One witness, who was held in solitary confinement, reported that toilet facilities consisted of an outhouse outside. It was open and had no water. The same witness stated that he received no medical attention for wounds from beatings. *3732
Detainees were reportedly beaten and tortured. Several reports state that Green Berets, Mujahedin warriors, police officers, and criminals were allowed to enter the prison and beat the detainees. *3733 Women were allegedly raped there. *3734 One report alleged that the commander of the women's floor extorted jewelry under the threat of rape. *3735 Another report stated that women were raped every night. *3736 Some detainees reported that they were forced to sign false confessions saying that they were «Cetnik» sympathizers or snipers, and some said they were forced to testify on Sarajevo television. *3737 One report stated that every night five to six Serbs died, and more were brought in to take their place. *3738 One man was allegedly abducted and taken to the Central Prison because his brother was willing to exchange 100 Muslim prisoners for him. *3739
According to another report, representives of the ICRC visited a detention facility in a prison in Sarajevo. The report notes the existence of this facility as late as 3 March 1993. No additional information regarding opertion or control of the facility was provided in the report. *3740
Ciglane: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. There were two places in this area of Sarajevo where people were detained. One was allegedly a «bordello,» holding Serb women and girls as young as 10 to 12 years old. The only account of this location came from a Serb woman who was held there. She stated that drunk Croatian and Muslim forces came to the site and raped the girls there. She alleged that many young girls were gang raped, and that none of the detainees were allowed to talk to each other. A former schoolmate of the witness brought her to this location. He had kidnapped her in Livno and brought her along when he was transferred to Sarajevo. *3741
Unidentified Tunnel: *3742 The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. Another site in this area where people were allegedly detained was an unidentified tunnel. *3743 At this tunnel, Serbs were reportedly detained by Muslims beginning in mid May. The site was run by an identified commander. *3744 He is suspected by the Government of FRY to be involved in crimes committed at the camp. The Government does not specify what these crimes were. *3745
Decic: *3746 The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Special Rapporteur to the United Nations Human Rights Commission. On 7 July 1992, Muslim and Croat forces allegedly attacked the village of Presjenica. Some were killed, and about 50 were taken prisoner. They were taken to a Muslim-run camp in Decic and held for two months. A Serb witness alleged that there was malnutrition, beatings, humiliations, and threats to kill. Younger women were allegedly taken away for forced prostitution and rape. The witness was exchanged in Kalinovik, 31 August 1992, through the Yugoslav Red Cross. She stated that five Muslims were exchanged for every Serb. *3747
Digitron Firm: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. This was allegedly a Serb run site, holding about 20 girls, aged 13 to 18. *3748 There is only one witness statement regarding this site, and that did not discuss the general conditions of detention. According to the witness, beginning with the attack on the SUP school in Vraca on 5 April 1992, unidentified «Cetniks» came to Grbavica every day to intimidate the civilian population. They allegedly searched the houses for arms. At the end of April, some came to a building and abducted about 20 girls, aged 13 to 18. These girls were reportedly taken to the Digitron firm at Buje. There, the «Cetniks» threatened to rape all the girls and keep them pregnant, allegedly saying that they should prefer giving birth to Serbs rather than «Balije». About 20 May the «Cetniks» began taking away two or three girls at a time to rape them. The witness was allegedly raped by two men while two others held her down. She stated that she was not raped every day, but some of the girls were. At the end of August, some of the girls were released. The witness was released in mid-September. She was five months pregnant. She believed that the perpetrators were Serbs, but not from the area by their accents. *3749
Dobrinja: There were allegedly several sites of detention in this section of Sarajevo. The Republic of Serbia reported that in mid-June, there were mass arrests of Serbs, beginning with the intellectuals. *3750 The prisoners allegedly were first taken to the Territorial Defence Staff or to the Military Police Staff and then put into basement prisons in the area. *3751
Sunce Storehouse, Dobrinja: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. One of these prisons was Sunce Storehouse, located under Privredna Banka. *3752 The site was reportedly run by the Territorial Defence forces and housed Serb men and women. *3753 One report described the prison as three cells and a guard room. *3754 A witness stated that there were 63 men and women kept there in one room. *3755 There was a lack of food and light, and detainees were reportedly heavily beaten. *3756 One witness stated that the commander of the prison was a Muslim man, identified by nickname. *3757 Some prisoners were reportedly moved from this location to the Viktor Bubanj barracks or Central Prison. *3758
Unidentified Basement Prison, Dobrinja: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. There may have been another basement prison in this area of Sarajevo. A witness described his detention in a basement prison with about 100 other Serbs. He stated he was arrested on 23 June 1992 by the Territorial Defence and put into an unidentified basement. He was interrogated, beaten, and forced to throw two Molotov cocktails at Serb houses in Nedzarici. He identified the commander at the site, and also identified two guards. *3759
Atomic shelter, Dobrinja: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Serbs were also allegedly held at an atomic shelter in the area for three months. *3760 The Serbian Government identified a Muslim man named Barakovic from Trebinje as an alleged perpetrator at unnamed private prisons. *3761
Primary school, Dobrinja: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the International Society for Human Rights. Additionally, one report alleged that Muslims from Dobrinja and nearby villages were rounded up, taken to an unnamed primary school, and beaten on 5 May 1992. *3762
Unidentified shelter Camp: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One report alleged that in August 1992, a Serb woman was taken by members of the Muslim army to a camp in a shelter, set up to detain Serbs. This woman was detained for five days, during which she was beaten, humiliated, and raped by three members of the Muslim army. She became pregnant and gave birth to a child in Belgrade in May 1993. *3763
Unidentified location, Grbavica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the New York Times. There was at least one site of detention in this area of Sarajevo, and may have been more. At one particular unidentified location in May 1992, a 15 year-old Muslim girl reported that she was abducted by Serbian fighters. Her abductors reportedly took her to a small room with about 20 other girls, where she was ordered to undress. She was beaten and raped by two men while two others held her down. They allegedly said they wanted to «make sure [she gave] birth to a Serbian baby». She stated that she was raped often. She was released in September or October. *3764
Unidentified camp, Grbavica: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Another witness, held in an unidentified camp in Grbavica, stated that on 8 July 1992, two men sent a message through the detainees at the detention camp in Grbavica. They allegedly said that all Muslims and Croats may leave the area if they want to because it would be hard on them later. The Serbs then allegedly evacuated the area. *3765
Unidentified detention facility, Grbavica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC. According to one source, as of 20 August 1993, Bosnian Croat HVO forces held about 15,000 Muslims in several detention camps and prisons, including one in Grbavica. The ICRC negotiated for access beginning in late June and were given access in August and early September. *3766 Over 1,500 Muslim detainees were released from detention centres controlled by the HVO during the week of 29 August but hundreds or thousands may have remained in prisons. *3767
Hadzici, community building: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One witness reported that this site was used as a temporary camp for Muslim men. The witness was arrested with a friend on 23 May 1992, by six armed men as he tried to enter the village to shop. He was taken to a small garage near the community building. He reported that there were 45 Muslim men already there, some of them from Foca. Serbs ran the site. The detainees allegedly received only one meal per day, slept on the floor, and had no toilet facilities. The witness stated that there was constant turnover at the site. Some of the detainees were beaten. The witness was held there for two weeks. On about 8 June he was transferred to the Sports Centre. *3768
Hadzici sports centre: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the US Department of State. This site was allegedly run by Serbs and housed Bosnian Muslims. The witness who was first taken to the community building testified that the population of the camp was about 180, all male Muslim civilians. He stated that the guards were local Serbs, who allowed six men to beat the detainees. When another village was «cleansed» by Serbs from Serbia, the witness said, the population increased by another 40 Muslim men. The witness stated that the detainees were subject to beatings, sexual abuse, and forced labour. They were allegedly given only one piece of bread and one «can» *3769 per day. On 22 June more civilians were brought in from the village Kucici, and the witness' group was transferred to Lukavica. From there they were sent to Kula and were finally exchanged at Vrbanja. *3770
Three other reports briefly describe this site. One witness identified six family members who she alleged were kidnapped from Grbavica, taken to the sports centre, and later transferred to Kula. *3771 Another report stated that the sports centre was a camp for Muslims from Hadzici and nearby villages, kept mainly for exchange purposes. This source stated that the population was about 2,500 in November of 1992. *3772 The last report stated only that Bosnian Muslims were taken to this site after processing at the Coca-Cola plant at Raskrsce. *3773
Hadzici prison: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC visited this place of detention on 11 April 1993. No information was provided regarding conditions, treatment of detainees or length of detention. *3774
Grude Prison, Hadzici: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Despite the forced expulsion of Serbs from Celebici on 22 April 1992, Muslim and Croat forces reportedly found 13 Serbs who refused to leave. The Serbs were imprisoned in Konjic for a period of two days during which they were beaten and mistreated. *3775 On 8 May the Serbs were taken to Grude prison. The prison was reportedly a Croatian-run facility. The Serbs were allegedly tortured on arrival, a consequence of which, one Serb was reported to have lost his life. *3776
«Bordellos» in Hadzici: The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources. In late 1991 and 1992, Muslim and Croat forces allegedly ran «bordellos», housing Serb women and girls as young as 12. These women were reportedly kept in the «bordellos» until the fifth month of pregnancy, and they were detained, but apparently not raped, after that to prevent abortions. Additionally, men with infectious diseases including AIDS were allegedly «deliberately allowed» to rape the women. This source further alleged that over 1,000 Serb women were exposed to this in seven counties. *3777
Hrasnica Prison: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ICRC. According to the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Commission, the BiH Interior Minister admitted that this site was controlled by the government and held men of all ages and backgrounds. The men were reportedly forced to do dangerous work like digging trenches on the front line. Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats were allegedly at particular risk of this detention because they could be exchanged for Bosnian Muslim prisoners of war. *3778
Igman, Hotel Famos: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. This site was described by one witness as a temporary camp. The witness, a Serb man, was arrested in Konjic with 13 friends by members of the Croatian and Muslim army. The witness stated that they were taken to the Hotel Famos at Mount Igman. the soldiers beat the detainees at the hotel entrance. The soldiers ordered the prisoners to lie on the ground and beat them with boots, pistols and feet. The soldiers then took the prisoners to an unlit concrete cellar. Eight soldiers followed the prisoners and beat them again in the cellar. When the prisoners lost consciousness, the soldiers allegedly threw water on them to wake them up. The next day, the prisoners' hands were tied, and they were forced to walk between two lines of soldiers, who beat the prisoners with shovels, blunt objects, iron pipes and rubber truncheons. The prisoners were taken to the Silos at Tarcin. *3779
Igman Prison: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC reported that it visited this place of detention on 27 May 1993. No information was provided regarding the treatment of inmates, the length of the facility's existence nor its exact location. *3780
Ilidza: The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources. There allegedly were at least six separate sites of detention in this area of Sarajevo: Sports Hall, Old Health Centre Building, Luzani Camp, Red Cross Building, Energoinvest Storehouse at Blazuj. There are no real details about these sites, but they were allegedly all run by two identified men. *3781 Another source stated that Arkan's «Cetniks» were most active in this region. *3782 Allegedly, nearly 35,000 people have passed through this area, reportedly 30,000 of them were Muslim. *3783
In mid-May 5,000 *3784 to 7,000 *3785 men, women, and children, travelling with a Children's Embassy convoy were allegedly detained at the sports centre for two to three days. *3786 There, three children reported that several men were taken away and tortured, and one child reported that the detainees were given nothing to eat. *3787
Ilidza Police Station: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The sixth reported detention site was at the local police station. This facility was also reported to have been operated by two identified individuals. *3788 The ICRC reported that it visited this place of detention on 28 May 1993. No information was provided regarding the treatment of inmates, the length of the facility's existence nor its exact location. *3789
Ilijas: There are several general reports regarding the detention of civilians in this area. Prisoners were reportedly transported here from other locations and killed. In April, 30 men from Gornja Bioca were brought here and killed for refusing to surrender. Their bodies were burned at the Zeljezara factory furnace. *3790 Additionally, 56 civilians, captured at Ahatovici and imprisoned at Rajlovac, *3791 were also brought here in mid June. Forty-eight of them were killed. *3792
Reports suggest that the primary school was used in April or May by Serbs to house Muslims. A number of civilians from the villages of Gornja Bioca and Kralupa were captured and detained at this location in Gornja Bioca. *3793 Three other sources support allegations of the existence of some sort of camp for Muslims in the area. A witness reported seeing 600 men, women, and children taken from Batajnice in June or July 1992 and assumed that they were brought to Ilijas. *3794 Another report stated that after attacks on Ljesevo, Ahatovici, Dobrosevici, Svrake and Hresa, civilians were taken to camps in Ilijas. There, they were allegedly tortured, some were exposed to poison gas, and some killed. *3795 A number of sources report that women held in facilities in Ilijas were allegedly taken away to the military barracks and private homes and raped. Some reportedly did not return. *3796
Gornja Bioca School, Ilijas: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. All of the information on this site came from the confession of Borislav Herak. He reported that in April of 1992, his company of the JNA took 120 Muslim civilians from Gornja Bioca and the village Kralupa and put them into the primary school in Gornja Bioca. The soldiers separated the men from the women and children. *3797 About 30 men, who had refused to surrender, were kept in a separate group. They were taken under the orders of an identified man, by army truck, to Ilijas Forge, where they were killed. The bodies were then burned in a furnace. *3798
Herak stated that he was encouraged by his commanding officer to select girls and rape them. He confessed to raping four young women at a nearby house and identified the four. He stated that he raped them at gunpoint and beat them. *3799 The young women all screamed, but no guards came to stop him. Herak also stated that two other men raped six women at the men's house. Herak further reported that an identified man from Serbia, a commander of a unit from Ilijas, killed three Muslim men and one Muslim woman «for no reason». An identified man ordered the bodies buried at the Muslim cemetery. *3800 After 10 days, all the prisoners were transferred to the Primary school at Ilijas. *3801
Podlugovi, Ilijas: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. There are only two references to this camp. According to one, this camp housed 200 Muslims from Ilijas, Luka, Bioca, and Mioca. At some point the detainees were allegedly transferred to Semizovac. *3802 The other source stated that Ljesevo village was attacked and burned in early June 1992. Some villagers were killed and some were taken under the orders of an identified man to camps in Podlugovi. This source alleged that the same occurred for the Muslim villages of Ilijas, Gornja Misoca, Donja Luka, Hadzici, Karaula, and Gajice. *3803
Kosevo Hospital: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One witness alleged that his father was held by Muslim authorities for nine months in the hospital. *3804 There are no other accounts of people held in the hospital.
According to another report, ICRC representatives visited a detention facility at a hospital in Sarajevo. No information was provided regarding conditions or prisoner treatment at this facility. *3805
Kosevo stadium: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government. The information regarding this camp is somewhat conflicting. Two sources reported that 6,000 Serbs were detained in this camp in 1992. *3806 Most were allegedly released, but some may still be held there. *3807 One source alleged that the Muslim police responsible for the detention were under orders of the BiH Presidency. *3808 Though conditions at the camp were not described, one source alleged that in July, members of the Bosnian Muslim paramilitary group, the Green Berets, threw live Serb children into the cages of wild animals at the zoo. *3809
A third source stated that several hundred Serb civilians had been detained in the stadium. This source also alleged that the BiH Government intervened for the release of these civilians from the stadium. *3810
Kula: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Amnesty International and UNPROFOR. This camp was located in the suburb of Butmir, near the airport. *3811 The prison was opened as early as May 1992 *3812 and remained in operation until at least January 1993. *3813 The population was estimated to be between 50 in May 1992, *3814 and 500 to 850 in November 1992. *3815 One source alleged that a total of over 30,000 prisoners passed through this facility; *3816 however, most accounts place the population at 130 to 200. *3817 According to one report, representatives of the ICRC visited a detention facility in Kula Butmir. The facility was established in a local prison/penitentiary and was in existence on 19 February 1993. No information was provided by this source regarding the operation and control of this facility. *3818
The prisoners were allegedly Muslim men, women, and children, and some elderly Serbs, Serb women, and young Serbian males who refused to fight in the Serbian army. *3819 However, some sources allege only that Muslims were held at the camp, *3820 and one source claims that only Serbs were held at the camp. *3821 The sources are also split on whether civilians or POWs were held there. *3822 One detainee was a Serbian writer, who spoke out against Radovan Karadzic and was allegedly a detainee at this facility in September. *3823 Finally, one source named one man as the commander, *3824 while a second named another as director of the prison. *3825
Prisoners were allegedly fed one cup of tea and one slice of bread one *3826 to two times per day. *3827 It is possible that conditions improved slightly over time since the accounts stating the detainees were fed once per day were from prisoners detained in May 1992, while the one account describing two meals per day was from a person detained in late June. There was no electricity, or running water, and buckets were used for toilets. *3828 Prisoners received no medical attention. *3829
People were not detained for very long at the camp. The shortest period of detention reported was 24 hours *3830 and the longest period was about eight or nine days. *3831 All detainees released from the camp were released through exchanges. *3832 The detention appears to have gone in stages. There are two witness reports concerning a group of people detained at the camp from 12 May 1992, to about 20 May. Both of these witnesses were taken from Dobrinja, and both describe the same general events. *3833 Another witness was interned in late June after an attack on the airport district. *3834 Because populations from different areas were in the camp at different times, and exchanges were conducted in large numbers after relatively short periods of time, this camp seems to have been used as a way to remove large groups of people from particular areas.
While they were detained at the camp, witnesses consistently stated they were interrogated *3835 and that some people were beaten. *3836 The beatings took place in front of other prisoners, and those who were beaten were beaten so severely they lost consciousness. *3837 One source alleged that some women were raped. *3838
Lesnina Furniture Store: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. From at least mid-April to December 1992, a camp was in operation in the basement of the Lesnina Furniture Store. There were about 20 girls aged 15 to 20 there, one woman in her thirties and this woman's young daughter. There is one witness account from the older woman regarding this camp. She was a Muslim woman married to a Croat. In April, four men from the SDS broke into her house, demanded money and killed the witness' husband. Ten days later, three men brought the woman and her daughter to this camp. There were about 20 girls--aged 15 to 20--already in detention here, the majority of whom were Muslim. The witness stated that one man took her to a flat where five men raped her. *3839 Three of them were SDS and had Ekavian dialects. The witness stated that the alleged perpetrators ate and drank during the rape and beat her, saying that they liked raping bloody «Balije». The witness stated that from June to December, she was taken every night to a different place and raped each time by four to five different «Cetniks». *3840 She stated that this happened to the other prisoners as well, except for her daughter. The women were returned at 3:00 or 5:00 a.m., each morning. During their detention, the detainees received only bread and beans to eat. *3841
Lukavica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely UNICEF. The only witness account of this site came from a young girl. She and her mother were held for about a month in April and May of 1992. She said that the camp was run by «Cetniks». *3842 She described the conditions, saying only that there was little food and that people were beaten. The witness stated that she saw soldiers kill old people and put them in mass graves. She also stated that she saw women raped. *3843 In one instance, she alleged that the commandant ordered several women and girls brought to a room. There, he allegedly ordered a Serb woman to stab the witness' mother in the chest or stomach. The witness was then ordered to stand against a wall. The Serbs allegedly shot at her, but she turned at the last minute, the bullet just nicking her ear. The witness and her mother escaped by running away. *3844 Another source stated only that women from Kula camp were also brought to this camp and raped. Some of these women were allegedly killed. *3845
Unidentified Home, Lukavica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC reported that it visited a detention centre at a private home in Lukavica in 1993. No information was provided regarding the treatment of inmates, the length of the facility's existence nor its exact location. *3846
Barracks, Lukavica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC reported that it visited a detention centre at the barracks in Lukavica on 30 September 1993. No information was provided regarding the treatment of inmates, the length of the facility's existence nor its exact location. *3847
Pale: After Serb losses at Orahovica, Renovica and Zepa, the residents of those killed staged a protest, threatening to kill or expel all the Muslims. One identified man allegedly forcibly evicted Muslims, and two other identified man organized arrests. Police forces from Sok allegedly carried out the arrests. An identified commander allegedly assisted in some unspecified way. Another identified man armed and dressed a paramilitary force. This paramilitary group allegedly looted Muslim property and cooperated with «weekend Cetniks.» Another man, affiliated with Arkan, was also allegedly involved in the persecution of Muslims. Finally, yet another man organized a paramilitary group. Forces active in the area included Arkan's paramilitaries, Seselj's «Cetniks», White Eagles, and «weekend Cetniks». *3848
There were several sites in Pale where Muslims were allegedly detained by Serbs. It appears that there was one main site, and other satellites where prisoners were detained.
Police Station, Pale: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. A site of detention was the police station. *3849
Sports Hall, Pale: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. A site of detention was a sports hall. *3850
Cinema, Pale: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, however none among them are neutral. A site of detention was a cinema. *3851
Cultural Centre, Pale: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A site of detention was in a cultural centre. *3852
It is unclear where the majority of detainees were housed. Two identified men, one a commander, allegedly ran all of these camps. *3853 One source stated that over 20,000 prisoners went through this area and as of November 1992, there were still 2,500 held there. *3854
Some prisoners were arrested and brought straight to the camps, while others were transferred in from other camps. Detainees were brought from Bratunac *3855 and Manjaca. *3856 At least one transfer from Bratunac occurred in mid-May. *3857 Estimates of the number of prisoners were near 400. *3858 Another source stated that 500 to 600 detainees were transferred from Bratunac to Pale, but did not specify the date of this transfer. *3859 It is unclear whether this was the same transfer as the one in mid-May. The camp was opened as early as May 1992, *3860 and may have been in operation as recently as May 1993. *3861
There is little information on the living conditions for most of the sites. A witness detained in the sports hall stated that about 50 people were kept for 12 days in a space the size of a volleyball court. They received one piece of bread and one-eighth of a 200 gram can *3862 every 24 to 36 hours. *3863 At all the sites, prisoners were allegedly interrogated and beaten. They were reportedly beaten upon arrival, during detention, and as they waited for exchange. As they waited for exchange, prisoners were tied in groups of 10 and forced to walk between two lines of guards who beat them. They were also forced to sing «Cetnik» songs. Guards used electric cables, police batons, and iron batons. *3864 Some detainees allegedly died from beatings. *3865 Additionally, two sources stated that women were raped in Pale. *3866 Finally, one source alleged that the Serbs forced detainees to give blood. *3867
One source stated that about 50 «extremists» were responsible for beating all of the prisoners. *3868 Fifteen of those guards have been identified. Two of these men were allegedly former employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, State Security Services, and a third was allegedly a member of Arkan's forces. *3869
Pofalici, unidentified cellar: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. An identified 20 year-old Serb woman alleged that she was held in a private prison in a basement in Pofalici for 25 days in the spring or summer of 1992. The private prison was allegedly run by an identified man. The witness stated that she was abducted on the way home from work by four Green Berets. She was taken to a cellar. It was a small hall, partitioned with wood. *3870 There were no windows or ventilation. She was placed in a very small room with another woman, 16 years-old. *3871 This other woman had been there for two days before the witness, and her father was a colonel. *3872 The room held only a blanket and a spotlight on the ceiling. It was only a little larger than the witness was tall. The guards brought in chairs when they needed them, such as for oral sex. *3873 The first night the witness was raped by 12 men in black coveralls and the commander. Among the men was a man identified by nickname. The commander raped her first that night, both orally and vaginally. The witness was raped every night. *3874 She stated that she heard cries of other women in the adjoining spaces. *3875 She was released through the intervention of a Muslim friend. The commander advised her to forget what had happened. *3876
Pofalici House of Correction: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Another site where people were allegedly detained was the basement of the House of Correction in Pofalici. A witness testified that he was held there for three days and two nights. He stated that he was interrogated and beaten by two members of Special units. The beat him with their hands, feet, sticks and rifle butts. They also allegedly called him a «Cetnik» and asked how many Muslim women he had raped at Zuc mountain. An identified man was allegedly a guard at this site. *3877
Pofalici Cultural Centre: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One report states merely that a great number of Serb women are held at this site. *3878
Rajlovac: There appear to have been several camps in this area, and it is unclear from reports what happened at which camp. Regardless, they appear to have been run as one unit. They were run by Serbs and housed Muslims. The camp or camps were described as barracks, hangars, storehouses, and tanks. One camp was described as the Military airport barracks, where people were tortured by being placed in cisterns and containers. *3879 Another camp was reportedly a distribution centre. *3880 Another of the camps was located at Jugopetrol or Energopetrol warehouses or storage tanks. Nearby was another detention area at the Tehnogas company. It is unclear of these are the same or different camps. Other sources identified the military barracks as a site of detention, and another, a distribution centre. All of these sites were in the area of Rajlovac. A majority of the reports concerning this area concern attacks on Ahatovici and Dobrosevici. The villages were allegedly attacked in early June. *3881 Either just before *3882 or after, men, women, and children were taken away. *3883
Jugopetrol Warehouse, Rajlovac: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Two witnesses describe events at this camp. One witness reports that on 30 May 1992, Serbs began shelling Dobrosevici. The next day, infantry attacks began. The third day, Nikola Stanisic and Vaso Skoco called for the surrender of the population. The soldiers separated men from the women and children and took all the detainees to the old storehouse of Jugopetrol at the airport Rajlovac. One witness stated that not everyone was beaten there, but he saw people beaten every day. He identified two men who died from beatings. Detainees were allegedly forced to dig graves, load and unload munition, and do other work. On 12 June, 10 men were taken from the camp and not seen again. On 13 June, 60 more detainees were taken away in similar fashion. The witness, his wife, child, and mother were released that day in a prison exchange. *3884
A Serb witness confirmed that Serb soldiers took villagers to Rajlovac and Jugopetrol. He identified two women who were allegedly raped at the camp, one publicly. The witness intervened on behalf of a woman and three children, securing their release from the camp on 11 June 1992. A few days later, all of the women and children were released and the men reportedly sent to Ilijas and Srednje. *3885
Bojnik Barracks, Energopetrol, and Tehnogas (Rajlovac): The existence of these detention facilities have been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. According to one witness, two or three days before the attack on Ahatovici and Dobrosevici, Serb soldiers captured about 150 men, women, and children in Dobrosevici, Bojnik, and Mihaljevici. The witness was taken to barracks in Bojnik with about 15 other men. There they were beaten. The men were then transferred to Rajlovac, where the witness stated he was kept in large tanks of the Energopetrol company. He stated that there were about 80 people in the tank with him and about 130 in the other. There were about 400 people kept at the Tehnogas company.
The witness identified the man in charge, and stated that he was interrogated by a Serbian mercenary from Kosovo. The witness identified another man who died from beatings. He had told the witness that the Serbs had demanded one million DM as ransom. *3886 The witness also said that 10 men on a list made by the camp commander were taken away by the driver of the leader of the SDS and four armed men. The 10 disappeared. At a later time, this driver allegedly threw an asphyxiant into the tank where the witness was to suffocate the prisoners.
On the 13th day of the witness' detention, the leader of the SDS came to the camp to take the witness and 54 other men for exchange. The men were loaded onto a bus and were beaten if they moved. After about an hour, the bus stopped at Sokoline. The driver and guards left the bus, and the bus was fired on with rocket launchers, bazookas, machine-guns, submachine-guns, and grenades for 15 minutes. Four non-wounded men helped two wounded escape. The witness later heard that three more also survived. *3887
Another source described this attack. This source stated that the attack occurred on 14 June that 56 men were on the bus and that 48 survived. *3888 Another source stated that the attack was ordered by the leader of the SDS and another identified man. *3889 Other sources also described this mass killing, but did not provide details. *3890 There may have been another incident, according to one witness. He stated that on 14 June at about 10:00 a.m., 86 detainees were put on two trucks. At about 12:30 p.m., an identified man ordered soldiers to fire at the trucks. Six people reportedly survived. *3891
Unspecified locations: The earliest account of prisoners came in a statement of a former policeman, arrested with another on 1 May 1992 in Vogosca. The witness stated that he and his companion were beaten by turns between 4 May and 13 May. On the 13th, they were transferred to Sonja's by one man identified by name and the body guard of the leader of the SDS. *3892
Detainees were brought to the camps over a period of time. Some were apparently brought there before the attacks and some just after. One witness reported being taken to a camp on the same day of the attack or the next day. *3893 The men and women were separated. The witness claimed he was beaten until he lost consciousness. Cold water was poured on him to awaken him. The witness then saw 68 more prisoners arrive at the camp. Six military policemen ordered them to take off their clothes and lay down. The six men beat these 68 on the genitals. Two men were also sent into a minefield, and the witness heard explosions. The witness stated that detainees received one piece of stale bread two times per day. On 13 June, 11 detainees were taken away, and they disappeared. On 14 June the witness stated that 86 detainees were taken for an exchange. An identified man allegedly ordered soldiers to fire on the trucks the detainees were in. Six allegedly survived. *3894
Another witness was taken from her home in conjunction with the attack. The attacking forces were all dressed differently. Some wore disguise uniforms, some ordinary uniforms, and some no uniforms. However, they all wore white armbands. The elderly men, women and children were separated from seven men of fighting age. Those seven were taken to Rajlovac barracks. Because they did not have any arms, they were told nothing would happen to them. However, the witness' husband stated that they were beaten and two were killed. The remaining five were exchanged. *3895
Finally, one witness stated that four days after the attacks, soldiers arrested everyone in the village of Ahatovici. There were about 53 women, children, elderly people, and sick people. They were taken to storehouses in Rajlovac. The witness saw an identified man beaten by a camp guard. This man died the next day. *3896 The witness stated that women and children did not suffer while she was in the camp. On 13 June she and her children were released in an exchange. *3897
Semizovac: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. It is unclear how many camps were in this area. Two sources indicate that there was one main camp, *3898 while another indicates that there were several camps. *3899
The camp was allegedly in operation from 5 June 1992, *3900 through at least November 1992. *3901 It reportedly housed Muslims. *3902 In June there were at least 33 prisoners, who had been transferred here from Podlugovi. They were allegedly used as human shields and forced to remove mines. They were released by being ransomed through HVO Kiseljak for 1,000 DM each. *3903
Other detainees were from Vogosca. *3904 The leader of the SDS, allegedly ordered the «ethnic cleansing» of Vogosca. Muslim workers were fired, Muslim shops were confiscated, and then Muslims were given an ultimatum to leave. Serb forces then allegedly destroyed the villages of Svrake and Krse, killing some villagers, and taking the rest to camps at Semizovac. According to this source, over 7,000 prisoners passed through camps in this area, and 840 were still held in November 1992. *3905 The last source also stated that the detainees of this camp were from Vogosca, primarily Svrake and Sovrle. This source concurred that over 7,000 prisoners passed through the area, adding that hundreds were killed there, died from torture or from hunger. *3906
Unidentified Facility, Svrake: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. The only information on a site of detention in this area comes from the confession of Borislav Herak. He referred several times to using prisoners from Svrake for various tasks. He did not state where the prisoners were held, but stated that they were used by the Bosnian Serb Army, Kremes Company, at Vogosca and Zuc mountain. Herak stated that prisoners were used to dig trenches, *3907 used as live shields, *3908 and used to light the torch for a giant flame thrower, consisting of a kerosene truck and a long hose. *3909 Herak also confessed to killing five men. A man allegedly ordered him to do it, saying that Herak could always say the men were shot trying to escape. Other prisoners were forced to bury the dead in a nearby Muslim cemetery. *3910
Tarcin: There are a number of reports of camps in Tarcin, the largest among them located in the local grain silo. Some reports described only «a camp» or «the camp» in Tarcin. Regardless, the camp or camps were allegedly run by the BiH Government. *3911 In the Spring of 1992, armed Muslims from the village of Tarcin attacked their Serbian neighbours. Some of the Serb villagers were taken to the silos. *3912 The armed groups were allegedly led by a retired police officer, and a military school student. The arrested villagers were allegedly tortured and beaten before they were taken to the camp. *3913 Bradina, Konjic was attacked 25 May 1992. The men were reportedly taken to camps at Tarcin and Celebici, while women and children were imprisoned in the primary school building or sent to the Sports hall Musala. *3914
Later, between 15 April and 17 April 1993, the BiH army and Muslim paramilitary forces took control of Konjic. They allegedly detained over 1,000 Bosnian Croat civilians at the Sports Hall in Konjic and the silos at Tarcin. *3915 On 9 July, ECLO Kiseljak reported that HVO sources claimed 20 prisoners were held at Tarcin. *3916 On 7 September 1993, an HVO representative for HUMPB said that 30 Bosnian Croats were still held in Tarcin and Pazaric, but that they were about to be liberated. *3917 Finally, at an unspecified point in time, 150 Bosnian Croat civilians from Podorasac and Konjic were imprisoned at Tarcin by the BiH Army and civil authorities. *3918
Tarcin, Silos: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the ECMM and the ICRC. This camp was a concrete grain silo with 11 small compartments *3919 25 to 35 square metres each. Between each compartment were walls about four metres high and about one half metre to one metre wide. Guards walked along these walls. *3920 There was a long corridor between the cells, and there were no sanitary facilities, water or light. The camp was encircled by barbed wire. The detainees slept on the concrete. *3921 The guards called each other only by their last names. Their place of command was a small «premise» within the Silo. *3922 The commander was a named Muslim, and four of the guards were identified. *3923
Two witnesses were at the camp at about the same time, in early June 1992. One stated that the camp was full and that his cell had 15 other Serb males in it, all from Konjic. This witness also stated that Serbs were brought in every day, after having been beaten at the Health centre nearby. This witness was transferred to Celebici on 4 June. *3924 The other witness stated that his cell contained about seven or eight Serb males from Tarcin. this witness stated that the guards beat only some of the prisoners, and those not too hard. He was transferred to Celebici camp about 3 June, then to Donje Selo on 17 November. On 8 February 1993, the witness was taken to Tarcin for an exchange. A Muslim woman was in charge of exchanges there, and she took about 100 Serbs in three trucks over Igman Mountain to exchange them in Hrasnica. Two men were returned because there were not enough Muslims to exchange for. Those two remained at Kula camp. *3925
A fourth witness did not state when he was at the camp. He was transferred with 13 others from the Hotel Famos at Mount Igman. He stated there were about 50 Serbs imprisoned there. There were about 15 men in over 12 small, damp filthy cells. The witness stated that three to four Muslim guards took each Serb one by one for interrogation. The Serbs were beaten during this interrogation, especially by the four named guards discussed above. After only a day at this site, the witness and 24 others were taken to Celebici. *3926
In the second half of August, 20 to 25 prisoners from the silos and Krupa were taken out and killed. *3927 The prisoners were local Croats and Serbs. The murders were organized by a Bosnian Hill Brigade Commander, a Tarcin HP Commander, and the Konjic Civil Police Commander. The murders were committed by an identified man. *3928 The men were killed in the middle of the night at a slaughterhouse owned by Redzo Baciri, on the Tarcin- Kresevo road. The bodies were disposed of between the slaughter house and the river. The grave was dug by Muslim prisoners from the silos. *3929
Other reports of the area of Tarcin did not specify to what camp they referred. Several sources just stated that there was a camp at Tarcin. *3930 Three reports alleged that women were detained at the camp. *3931 One of these alleged that girls and women were raped there. *3932 The ICRC allegedly visited a camp in November of 1992, and found it lacking in heat, with insufficient coverings for detainees. *3933 Finally, a camp was still allegedly in operation in late 1993. *3934
Health Centre in Tarcin: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to one report, Serbs were severely beaten by Muslim soldiers at the health centre which was located some 200 metres from the silo. *3935 Many of those mistreated at the health centre were reportedly taken to the grain silos. No additional information was made available regarding the duration of prisoner internment, nor the conditions attendant at the facility. *3936
Trapare: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral sources, namely the United States Government. According to one witness, on 9 May or 10 May 1992, military units wearing the insignia of Serbian «Cetniks» and the JNA entered an area near the Sarajevo airport. The soldiers allegedly ordered all of the residents to come out of the cellars where they had been hiding. The soldiers then separated the Serbs from the Muslims. One 50 year old Serb male refused to be separated from his Muslim neighbours. The witness stated that five to six soldiers beat him to death for his refusal.
The witness and about 40 other Muslims were used as human shields, made to march through a combat zone to vehicles 300 metres away, and thereafter taken to a detention facility called Trapare. *3937 This site was a camp or assembly area three kilometres from the Sarajevo airport. When the witness and the other prisoners arrived at the camp, the witness reported, the soldiers took a 12 year-old girl from her father. About six men allegedly took her behind a bunker, and the witness heard her screaming and crying. The father collapsed, at which point he was forced over to the bunker at knife point, and forced to watch as soldiers allegedly repeatedly raped his daughter for about an hour. The witness never saw the father and daughter again and believed they were killed. *3938
Trnovo: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. This area was generally used as a point of exchange of prisoners. Two witnesses reported that they were taken to Trnovo for unauthorized exchanges. *3939 One witness stated that he had been imprisoned by joint Muslim and Croat forces at Celebici camp in May 1992 and was transferred to the Sports hall in Konjic in August 1992. He stated that on 6 November 1992, he and about 29 other Serbs were taken to Trnovo for an informal exchange. The detainees were kept in stores next to the police station for two months, during negotiations. The guards did not beat the prisoners, but some prisoners of war were killed. Additionally, the witness alleged that the detainees were required to do physical labour. The site where the witness was kept was a bare space with wooden pallets for sleeping. When the witness was finally exchanged, 10 prisoners remained. Three from Konjic were exchanged later, and the witness did not know what happened to the remaining seven from Kalinovik. He stated that there was a constant turnover in Trnovo because prisoners from Konjic were sent there for exchange regularly. *3940
Viktor Bubanj Army Barracks: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including the CSCE, UK DDT, and the ICRC. This site was formerly a prison for 5th Army Division soldiers. *3941 It was turned into a camp housing both Bosnian Serb men and Bosnian Serb women, all civilians, though some were accused of informing or signalling the Serb army. *3942 It was allegedly also called «Juka's Prison». It was run by a local army official. *3943 However, another report stated that the camp was run by a man identified by nickname. *3944 The population was estimated at over 200, *3945 the men housed in 12 cells and the women in seven cells. The main foreman for the women was identified by only one name. *3946 Some of the women were allegedly wives of former or current JNA members. *3947 One report alleged that four captured Serb soldiers were brought to this camp in September of 1992 and executed in front of other detainees. *3948 One part of the prison was allegedly in better condition for visits by journalists and the ICRC. Also, detainees were allegedly forced to make false statements to journalists. *3949
Prisoners were beaten, and denied medical assistance, and women prisoners were raped. *3950 One witness was arrested by Green Berets and taken to the prison. She was put into a small room with seven other women, some young and some elderly. More women arrived later. The floor was covered with a mattress and blankets. The witness was interrogated, beaten, and raped. She stated that the other women were raped frequently also, but each by the same Muslim man--one man for each woman. The women were raped in front of each other, and a small room next door was used only for oral sex. The witness was helped by a Muslim woman, who supplied her with contraceptives. Other women became pregnant, and were allegedly told they could receive abortions if they testified that Serbs had raped them. The witness became pregnant when the Muslim woman could no longer supply her with contraceptives. The witness stated that several people were killed, and the guards performed mock executions. The witness escaped in mid-December with the help of an identified person. *3951
The Thomson Mission visited this Muslim-run facility on 1 September 1992. Mission representatives located some 127 Serbian detainees, eight of whom were young to middle aged women. Male detainees ranged in age from early 20's to well over 60 years. The vast majority claimed to be innocent civilians, including an oral surgeon who was arrested as an alleged threat to BiH peace and security. Two among them said they were members of Karakjic's SDS. *3952
Health related conditions appeared to have been satisfactory, although there was evidence of head and body lice infection among the inmates. The detainees were reportedly held here for close to three months. *3953
Vogosca: There were several sites run by the Serbian SDS where Muslims were allegedly detained in Vogosca. Among them were Sonja's motel and restaurant, the Neuropsychiatric clinic, Ernest Grin Hospital, private houses, the police station, the Hotel Park, and an unidentified hotel. There are no specific allegations regarding the Neuropsychiatric clinic, Ernest Grin Hospital, and the private houses. *3954
Hotel Park, Vogosca: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United States Government. According to Borislav Herak, about 100 of Arkan and Seselj's soldiers stayed at this hotel, traveling daily to the front lines. *3955 Several women were allegedly brought to this hotel and raped there by soldiers. *3956 It is not clear if women were held here for a period longer than for the rape. However, one woman was taken multiple times to the hotel and raped by several men. She was a prisoner, though her movement was not limited to the premises of the hotel. *3957
There was also an unidentified motel described by one witness account. This site could be the Hotel Park, Sonja's, or another site. The Muslim witness stated that she was taken with other women and children from her neighbourhood to a motel in Vogosca. There were about 40 Muslim women there, aged 18 to 40, and two 16 year-old girls. The witness was detained from 20 August through 10 December 1992. All the women slept in one room. Soldiers allegedly came in at night drunk, selected victims randomly, took them upstairs and raped them. The witness believed that every woman at the hotel was raped more than once. The witness was raped twice and was also interrogated and beaten. She and her son were released in a prisoner exchange. *3958
Police Headquarters, Vogosca: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. Two men were arrested on 1 May 1992, and taken to the police station at Vogosca for interrogation. The commander was identified as a local army official. One of the men was allegedly beaten by the commander. Later the same day, the prisoners were taken to Rajlovac. *3959 Another source alleged only that Muslim prisoners were kept in the police station. *3960
Sonja's Kon-Tiki Restaurant (aka Kod Sonje), Vogosca: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources, including Newsday and the New York Times. This site was an abandoned restaurant and motel complex in Vogosca, located about seven miles north of Sarajevo. *3961 The motel housed women, while an attached bunker housed men. According to one source, the motel held 50 to 60 Bosnian Muslim girls. *3962 The commander of the bunker section was identified, *3963 while two other men allegedly ran the motel section. *3964
The motel was allegedly run as a «bordello», the commanders allowing the frequent rape of the detainees. *3965 A detailed allegation of how this «bordello» was run was provided by Borislav Herak. He stated that he visited the site at least once a week on the suggestion or orders of his commanders or his platoon leaders. He stated that he was told it was important for his morale to rape Muslim women. *3966 A colleague of Herak's did not assert that he was ordered to go to the camp, but instead said that he had heard that a lot of the army went there. *3967
Herak confessed to raping 11 women from the site. He also confessed to killing them or participating in their killing on Zuc mountain. He identified five men who were with him, also raped some of the women, and killed some of them. *3968 One of Herak's commanders allegedly knew and approved of the rapes and killings. He and the other commander handed out the keys, and they told Herak they had new girls coming in daily for whom there was not enough room or food. *3969 Herak also stated that he was present when French and Canadian UNPROFOR soldiers came to take women away in UN APCs. One of Herak's commander's said that UN soldiers raped women and returned them to the restaurant. Herak added that once he saw General McKenzie, the commander of UNPROFOR in Sarajevo, with four girls. He said he recognized the general from television. *3970 UNPROFOR allegedly denied the allegations that UNPROFOR soldiers and Serb soldiers rape Muslim women. *3971
Other sources alleged that at this camp, a group of 20 «Cetniks» raped two girls, aged seven and 13 in front of their mother. The girls died from their injuries. *3972
There is only one witness account of the bunker section of the camp. Two Muslim men were allegedly arrested in Vogosca on 1 May 1992. They were first taken to the police headquarter, then to Rajlovac, and on 13 May, they were taken by members of the Serbian irregular forces to the bunker. That night, the men were interrogated by a former colleague. The witness stated that they were beaten severely during questioning and on another occasion. On 29 May, the men were exchanged, but were arrested 24 hours later by the order of two inspectors. *3973
Another source alleged that the commander of the Viktor Bubanj prison and his «Cetniks» took prisoners to this site. They allegedly tortured and interrogated the detainees. *3974
Unidentified camps: The existence of these detention facilities have not been corroborated by multiple sources. According to one source, 218 Muslims were taken hostage 24 May 1992. BiH radio reported that they were being tortured and deprived of food. The location of this site was not mentioned. *3975 Another source alleged that prisoners taken from an unspecified camp in Vogosca were taken in July 1992 to work at Zuc mountain for Serbian forces. Allegedly a Serbian volunteer told Borislav Herak that five of them should be killed. Herak killed them with gunfire as the prisoners had their backs to him. *3976
Vrace: This was allegedly an area where several informal sites of detention existed, and one large camp was located. Two sources claimed that Muslim women were held in houses and flats where they were beaten and raped repeatedly. *3977
Student Dormitory: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. The large camp was located at a former student dormitory. One source claimed that over 27,000 people passed through this camp, and over 500 civilians were killed. The prisoners were allegedly interrogated by SDS and the Serb Secretariat of Internal Affairs, under the direction of a named man. The prisoners were allegedly mistreated, but the source did not describe that mistreatment. The camp authorities also allegedly set up a court with «proper» punishment to deal with charges against the inmates. The detainees were exchanged or transferred to Kula, Lukavica garrison, Slavisa Vajner Cica in Sokolac, or to Pale. *3978
Unidentified school: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A BiH witness stated that her neighbour was taken to a school in April of 1992 for interrogation. There, Serbs allegedly beat him and threatened to kill his brother if the detainee did not pay them 500 DM within an hour. The detainee escaped with his family, and the Serb soldiers allegedly demolished the brother's house and raped two women suspected of hiding the two men. *3979
Drvo-Rijeka Shop: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One witness reported that in mid-June 1992, during the evacuation of the Marsal Tito barracks, three armed «Cetniks,» identified by name, came to her apartment. They had cockades on their caps and allegedly told the witness that they were coming to take away Muslims and slaughter them. The men took the witness and her father to Vraca in a luxury car, stopping on the street Petrovacka Cesta. The two detainees were put into a garage, and then taken to a room. The witness was forced to watch while the men beat her father and tried to cut him. The witness was beaten too and the men threatened to cut their throats. Batko took the witness to another room where he raped her. *3980 He tried to get the other two men to rape her also, but they refused. The two men, Zoran and Mijo, took the witness to their headquarters in the shop Drvo-Rijeka, where she spent the night. The men questioned the witness about her brother, and who would win the war. The men sent her home in the morning, saying that Batko had looked for her that night. The witness has not seen her father since this time. Later, she found out that someone had called her brother from Vraca, saying that they had tortured and killed the witness and her father. *3981
Huts in Zovik: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United Kingdom. This site was just south-east of Hadzici. A witness stated that in January 1993, he knew of a prisoner of war camp holding 30 to 40 Serbian males in «nissen type» huts. *3982
Zuc: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. This was reportedly a site where women from Sonja's were taken and killed. Also, Borislav Herak confessed that several people living in Sarajevo were taken here and killed by him and his colleagues so that they could confiscate the apartments of those killed. *3983 Finally, a witness stated that Serbian men broke into Muslim houses, took girls and women to this mountain and raped them there. He also stated that when the area was retaken by Muslim troops, they found mutilated bodies of women. *3984
The county of Sekovici is located in eastern BiH. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population of Sekovici was 9,639. At that time, the population was 94.3 per cent Serbian and 5.7 per cent Muslim. *3985
Women's camp: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the French Government. It was reported that there was a camp for women in Sekovici *3986 where more than 800 Muslim women and girls were imprisoned. *3987 It was alleged that women and girls as young as seven years old were raped and otherwise abused in this camp. *3988 Another report also refers to a camp for women in Sekovici. *3989
Vucinovici camp: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Approximately 20 men were taken from a camp in Susica to a camp in the village of Vucinovici in the county of Sekovici. The men were reportedly treated very badly by there Serbian captors. It is alleged that the men were subjected to forced labour such as digging shelters and other heavy work. They received very little food and had to sleep on the ground in a ruined house. Their possessions were stolen and they were often beaten. *3990
Logging Camp/Sawmill: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United Kingdom. A source reported that a detention camp at «Sekovice» *3991 was located at a former logging camp/sawmill in the woods near the town. The source believed that it was still in use. *3992
Unknown Sekovici Camp: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely ICRC. Several reports refer to a camp existing in Sekovici. None of the reports provide any details concerning the camp or camps. *3993
The municipality of Sipovo is located in the west- central section of BiH. According to the 1991 census, Sipovo had a total population of 15,553. Serbs comprised the majority of the population at 79.2 per cent, and Muslims comprised 20.8 per cent. Four documents refer to camps located in Sipovo.
Camp Sipovo: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One report referred to a «Camp Sipovo» where prisoners from Manjaca were transferred in late May or early June 1992. The source did not indicate the exact location of the camp. «Camp Sipovo» was controlled by Serbs and the prisoners were Muslim according to this source. The report provided no further information concerning the camp. *3994
Mliniste: *3995 The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. It was reported that a concentration camp was located at Mliniste in the municipality of Glamoc which extends to the city of Sipovo in the municipality of Sipovo. *3996 The camp was originally used as a work camp for Serbs from Mrkonjic Grad and Kljuc who refused to serve in the Serbian army. The camp was geographically separate from the town of Mliniste and located in a thick forest. The report stated that the ICRC searched for the camp, but was unable to find it as it is concealed by thick trees and not visible from the air. The camp allegedly opened in June 1992 and there was no indication in the report that it had been closed.
This Serb controlled camp reportedly housed 3,500 prisoners. *3997 The camp commander was identified in the report by name. *3998 The camp prisoners were reportedly Muslims and Croatians from Kljuc, Bosanski Petrovac, Jajce, Mrkonjic Grad, and Sipovo. The prisoners were allegedly captured by Serbian soldiers at home or work, or were arrested by former JNA soldiers and «Cetniks». Many were taken to Manjaca first and then to Mliniste.
The municipality of Skender Vakuf is in north-western BiH and is bordered by the municipalities of Kotor Varos, Travnik, Jajce, Mrkonjic Grad, Banja Luka, and Celinac. According to the 1991 census the population of Skender Vakuf was 19,416. The majority of the population were Serbs at 69.6 per cent, Muslims comprised 24.8 per cent, and Croats 5.6 per cent.
Skender Vakuf Post Office: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Helsinki Watch. Five men were reportedly held captive by JNA officers soldiers in the basement of a post office in the city of Skender Vakuf. *3999 The city of Skender Vakuf is located in the central part of the municipality of Skender Vakuf. During the middle of May 1992, JNA soldiers brought the five male prisoners to the Babanovac Hotel near Travnik to the post office in Skender Vakuf. It is unclear from the report whether the prisoners were Muslim or Croatian, but the report did state that the men were stripped of their uniforms after being captured near the lower part of the Vlasic plateau. *4000
According to one prisoner, two of the men were wounded when captured. The prisoners who were transported from the Babanovac Hotel were held at the Skender Vakuf Post Office were held until Sunday 17 May. During their detention, the prisoners were deprived of food, water, blankets or clothing. According to this source, the prisoners were beaten by a «group of men» many times. Those who performed the beatings were probably JNA soldiers although the report did not state this. The witness stated that the men were subjected to beatings each time they requested to use the bathrooms. The men were subsequently taken to a prison in Stara Gradiska, a town bordering northern BiH in the Serbian occupied area of Croatia. *4001
The county of Sokolac is located in eastern BiH. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population was 14,833. At that time, the population was 68.6 per cent Serbian, 30.2 per cent Muslim, and 1.2 per cent were referred to as «other». *4002
Sokolac Camp: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. A Muslim man *4003 reported being arrested along with his wife, mother-in-law, brother and his brother's wife in Rogatica by Serbians and being held in Sokolac as a war prisoner. He was held for 21 days and then exchanged in Sarajevo. The man believes that his brother was held in Sokolac for five days and then released. The man was subjected to beatings while being detained. He does not know the fate of the others arrested. He reported that the arrests were organized by two named men. *4004 A Muslim woman reported that her husband was taken to a camp in Sokolac. *4005 It was reported that a camp referred to as the «Sokolac Concentration Camp» was a supplementary camp for the one located in Pale. Most of the prisoners are said to have come from Bratunac. *4006
Primary School, «Slavisa Vajner Cica»: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A Muslim woman *4007 reported that in May 1992, a group of armed «Cetniks» from surrounding Serbian villages began searching Muslim houses and intimidating the civilians in Sokolac. Many young women were taken to a camp in a primary school, «Slavisa Vajner Cica» in Sokolac. There were 13 women and about 400-500 men. All of them were Muslim except two Serbian women. The witness was held in the camp from May until September and reported that all of the women, including herself, were repeatedly raped. *4008 She also reported that the men were beaten and forced to dig trenches. *4009
KTK Visoko Plant, Knezina: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. It was reported that the KTK Visoko Plant at Knezina, in Sokolac county was turned into a labour camp for non-Serbians. *4010 This camp is also included in a list of camps in another report. *4011
Psychiatric Clinic: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. Allegedly, civilians were held and tortured at the psychiatric clinic in Sokolac. The clinic was renamed «Serbian Hospital». *4012 This camp is also included in a list of camps in another report. *4013
Gym, Sokolac: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. It was reported that three named «extremists» held prisoners in a gym at Sokolac. *4014
Sports Hall: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A camp in a Sports Hall in Sokolac was included in list of camps. It is unclear whether this is the same camp referred to as the «Gym» camp above. *4015
Winter Service Point: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. It was reported that the three «extremists» named above held prisoners at the Winter Maintenance Service at Podromanija. *4016 A camp referred to as the «Winter Service Point at Romanija» was included in a list of camps in another report. *4017
Unknown camp: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. An unknown Sokolac camp is referred to in a list of camps. *4018
The county of Srebrenica is located in eastern BiH on the Serbian border. According to the 1991 census, the pre-war population was 37,211. At that time, the population was 74.8 per cent Muslim and 25.2 per cent Serbian. *4019
Sase Mine: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the US Government. A detention centre is reported to exist in an unused mine in the town of Sase, near Srebrenica. It is further reported that four identified Serbs took 52 men from this detention centre and killed them all in a place called Bjelovac, near the river Drina. *4020
Nova Kasaba: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. A list of camps reports the existence of a camp in Srebrenica known as «Nova Kasaba». There is no detailed information. *4021 This camp is also referred to in another report containing a list of camps. *4022
The municipality of Stolac is located in Herzegovina. It is bordered by Capljina, Nevesinje, Mostar, Ljubinje, and Neum. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the population of this municipality was 18,845; of which 44.5 per cent were Muslims, 32.4 per cent were Croats, 20.8 per cent were Serbs, and the remaining 2.3 per cent were described as «others».
It was reported that four camps were established in Stolac including the Stolac Ironworks *4023 (The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Amnesty International.); the Army Barracks *4024 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.); the Tobacco Station *4025 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.); and the Crnici School *4026 (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources.). No additional details regarding these camps have been received except that during an inspection conducted by ECMM teams on 15 September 1993 no prisoners were found in any of the camps in Stolac. *4027
It was reported that since June 1993 approximately 1,350 Muslim men «of fighting age» from the Stolac region have been arrested by HVO forces. Testimony has been received which suggests that a number of young and elderly men have been arrested. *4028 HVO authorities claim that the men were arrested for security reasons but acknowledge that due process was ignored during their arrest. *4029 Bosnian Croat forces reportedly detained these men at Dretelj and Gabela camps but their current location remains unknown. *4030
On 3 August 1993 the entire remaining Muslim population of Stolac, including approximately 4,000 women, children and elderly, reportedly was arrested and imprisoned at the Gasnice camp in Capljina. *4031
Tesanj is located in northern BiH, south of Doboj and has a population of 48,390 according to the 1991 census. At that time the population was 72.2 per cent Muslim, 18.5 per cent Croat, and 6.4 per cent Serb, with the remaining 2.9 per cent described as «others». *4032
Tesanj Rape Camp: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the Dallas Morning News. This detention area is located in Tesanj. *4033 Approximately 20 Muslim women were held by Serbs for at least four months. *4034 They would rape the women detainees every day and night. *4035 On some occasions, the detainee would be raped by several men on the same night. *4036
Unidentified Camp: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One woman, apparently of mixed ethnicity, claimed she was held in the detention facility from October 1992 to March 1993. She appears to be part Muslim and part Serb. During her imprisonment she was raped several times every day by various members of the Muslim armed forces. She was beaten, had cigarettes extinguished on her body and had her anus injured. The witness claimed that a 70 year- old woman was detained and raped in this detention facility. One Muslim soldier refused to rape a woman and was allegedly killed by his fellow soldiers. *4037
Military Prison, Tesanj: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC reported that their representatives visited a detention facility at the military prison in Tesanj on 24 November 1992. No information was made available regarding the length of detention or conditions at this facility. *4038
Hospital, Tesanj: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. The ICRC reported that their representatives visited a detention facility at the military prison in Tesanj on 24 November 1992. No information was made available regarding the length of detention or conditions at this facility. *4039
Before the conflict, Teslic county, situated in north central Bosnia, had approximately 60,000 inhabitants, of whom approximately 45 per cent were Muslims, 25 per cent were ethnic Croats, and 30 per cent were ethnic Serbs. With the onset of the war, the majority non-Serbian population was ordered to surrender and relinquish all weapons to the Serbian insurgent forces. *4040
Serbian extremists established several detention facilities which reportedly interned more than 600 individuals. *4041 The inmates in these facilities were said to have been under the despotic control of members of the Serbian militia, the Armada Forces of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the «Red Beret» formations--all of whom had reportedly come from Banja Luka to assist in «cleaning the terrain». *4042
Unidentified camp: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One report acknowledged the existence of a facility which was said to have processed over 300 Muslim inmates. Several other reports refer to the existence of an exclusively female rape camp, with a rather sizeable containment capacity. A former refugee from this camp recalled that women were transported to the camp in trucks, the trucks each contained approximately 24 women and the witness observed a great many trucks preparing to transport women to this facility. *4043 One room in the facility was said at one time to have accommadated over 100 individuals. *4044
Unknown facility outside Teslic: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. There are several sources which refer to an exclusively female camp in a wooded area just west of Teslic. The former female inmates who provided the information for these reports were all from the village of Kalosevic. *4045
In one report, a Muslim victim alleged that her village was overrun by Serbian forces in mid-March 1992 and the women and children were collected and taken to this facility in the woods. *4046 She noted that the building in which she was contained appeared to be a newly erected brick structure. *4047 She was placed in a room with 12 other girls and a guard was posted in front of the door to prohibit movement or escape. *4048 The victim recalled five of the other girls as having also come from the village of Kalosevic. *4049
The victim reported that all the girls who shared the room with her were raped. *4050 The soldiers came to the room on a daily basis and sexually assaulted them. *4051 They were told that they were to give birth to Serbian children. *4052
After being held captive for three months, a Serbian from the village of Kalosevic, dressed in «Cetnik» uniform and assisted by friends from the Croatian Defence Council, facilitated the escape for 12 of the inmates. *4053
In a similar report a female victim recounted that women and children from her village were thrown into JNA trucks, with approximately 24 of them per truck. *4054 She identified the perpetrators as «Cetniks» wearing uniforms of the former JNA *4055 as well as militiamen clad in uniforms with skull and bones insignia. *4056
The «Cetniks» took the victims through Teslic to an unidentifiable wooded location and
«began taking us to some kind of rooms which were for the most part dug out of the ground, resembling mining areas or spaces; there was no light. There were over 100 of us in this space.» *4057There was reportedly no exit from the room. According to the witness, the room was always dark, the only illumination came from a light burning in the hall. *4058 Inmates, she recalled, were fed bread and water two times daily. *4059
The detainees were divided once again and the witness was put in a hut with 23 other women. *4060 The witness and some 11 others were repeatedly raped in the hut in front of the other women. *4061 Reportedly some women's hands were bound before they were raped. Others were kicked and beaten. The perpetrators were camp guards as well as «Cetniks» from outside the camp. *4062 In addition to the rapes, the Serbs occasionally took women from the group and executed them by random firing squad. *4063
The witness remained in detention at this facility for three months, until the end of July at which time a named Serb helped several victims escape. *4064
Another female victim stated that the «Cetniks» who invaded her village of Kalosevic wore masks and White Eagle insignia on their uniforms. *4065 They rounded up all the women and young girls and led them on foot. The women were required to walk for some five hours; shepherded through the forest, to a clearing. *4066 Upon arrival, they found a place that the witness characterized as «some kind of forest motel.» *4067 The cabins were designated as sentry-boxes, and the entire encampment was fenced with barbed wire. *4068
The witness was placed with the girls and younger women. She was raped every night. *4069 The White Eagles took their victims every evening and brought them back in the mornings. *4070 There were nights when more than 20 of them came. *4071 The women were reportedly also made to cook for the guards and to serve them naked. *4072 The perpetrators reportedly also raped and killed some of the girls in front of the other victims. *4073 Those women who resisted had their breasts cut. *4074
Stara Opstina: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United States Government. On 12 July 1992, a victim and his friend were arrested by four or five soldiers wearing red berets and green uniforms. *4075 The witness identified these soldiers as belonging to the so-called Serbian militia, «Crveni Barek». *4076 The two were singled out apparently because of the appearance of their names on an unidentified Serb generated list. *4077
The detainees were taken to what was described as a large local government building, called Stara Opstina. *4078 According to the witness, all of the rooms, including the area in the cellar of the facility, were filled with Croatian and Muslim prisoners. *4079 During his internment, the witness was both beaten and compelled into forced labour. *4080 His detention at this facility was concluded on 14 July 1992, when the witness and his fellow prisoners were transferred to the local stadium. *4081
«Proleter» Stadium: *4082 The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. This location was reportedly under the control of Serbian soldiers, presumably with some connection to the «Crveni Barek». *4083 While no information regarding the layout or physical condition of the facility was made available, a clear impression of the attending circumstances may be had.
According to one witness' recollection, a rather grim incident took place on 22 July 1992. Early that morning, some 25 drunken soldiers lined up a number of Muslim and Croatian prisoners. *4084 The soldiers called the individuals, one-by- one, from the line. When the prisoner responded, the soldiers-- as many as 10 at a time--beat and stabbed the victim to death. *4085 Some 50 prisoners were killed in this manner over a period of about three hours. *4086 If the victims refused to step forward when called, as was the case with the witness' friend, the soldiers simply machine-gunned them down where they stood. *4087
Police station: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United States Government. According to one report, after Serb forces took control of the county of Teslic, all non-Serb families who had family members working in Western Europe were ordered to pay 300 DM per month to Teslic County. *4088 Those who refused had their homes raided at night, their families beaten and the eldest paternal family member taken to the police station for interrogation. *4089 These interrogations, called informative talks, lasted two to four days. *4090 The Muslims were reportedly beaten by three to four policemen at a time. *4091
Banja Vrucica Sanatorium: *4092 The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by multiple sources however none among them are neutral. Only a few reports referred to a detention facility at this location, however with very little detail. One report notes that over 300 Muslims between the ages of 16 and 60 were interned here and subjected to the whims and terrifying fancies of the Serbian militia, the Armada forces of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the «Red Beret» formations. *4093
Pribinic: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. One report cites to the existence of a concentration camp in the Borija mountains. *4094 At the time that the report was authored, some 500 individuals were reportedly interned at this facility. *4095 No further information was available regarding its operation and control.
This municipality is located in western BiH, on the border of Croatia. It is bounded to the north by Bosanski Petrovac and to the south by Bosansko Grahovo. According to the 1991 Yugoslav census, the Titov Drvar municipality had a population of 17,079. Of that number 97.3 per cent were Serbs, 0.2 per cent were Muslims, 0.2 per cent were Croats, and the remaining 2.3 per cent were described as «others».
In the Titov Drvar community, the Serbian goal of Muslim extermination reportedly continued unabated. The full scale expulsion of Muslim citizens and the establishment of concentration camps were reported throughout the area. *4096
Kamenica: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the ICRC. Several sources suggest the existence of a Serb controlled camp in Kamenica, in the area of Drvar. According to one report, 29 people were arrested in mid-July in Bosanski Petrovac and transported to this camp in Kamenica. The identification of the individuals interned in Kamenica was included in the report. *4097
Another report alludes to the United Nations' efforts to obtain the release of some 61 Muslims held by Serb forces at the camp in Kamenica. *4098 The report states that he Muslim prisoners were released and transferred by ICRC members to the United Nations protected shelter of Karlovac (Republic of Croatia). *4099
Elementary School: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely the United States Government. Reportedly following the closing of camp Kozile in Bosanski Petrovac, *4100 the prisoners were transported to the elementary school in Kamenica. The school had an estimated maximum capacity of 1000. The facility was presumably operated by military police units from Drvar. It is unclear if guards from camp Kozile were also transferred here for duty. *4101
Prekaja: The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources. Reportedly just near Drvar, in the village of Prekaja is an alleged Serb controlled concentration camp. *4102 Allegedly operated by extremists, the interns were purportedly tortured and killed at this camp. *4103
Titov Drvar: The existence of this detention facility has been corroborated by a neutral source, namely Medecins Sans Frontieres. Medecins Sans Frontieres reportedly acquired evidence of two Serb controlled concentration camps in Titov Drvar. *4104 The French source interviewed several Muslim refugees from the town of Kozarac who had been interned in the Serb controlled camps. *4105 The French agency reported that more than half of the refugees had reportedly been tortured. *4106
Drvar Prison: (The existence of this detention facility has not been corroborated by multiple sources). Another report alleges the existence of a Bosnian Serb controlled camp at the prison. *4107 This location was identified as of May 1993. *4108 The source, however, did not provide additional information regarding either operation or prisoner identification.
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