Source: Trial of the Major War Criminals before
the International Military Tribunal, Vol.1, Nuremberg, 1947, pp. 27-28, 42-68
[For information on the referencing of Internet sources see Chapter 4 of S
D Stein Learning, Teaching and Researching on the Internet. Addison Wesley
Longman 1999, published November 1998]
INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL
[* This text of the Indictment has been corrected in accordance with the
Prosecution's motion of 4 June 1946 which was accepted by the Court 7 June 1946 to rectify
certain discrepancies between the German text and the text in other languages.]
Count One-The Common Plan or Conspiracy [omitted here]
Count Two-Crimes Against Pace [omitted here]
Count Three-War Crimes/Statement of the Offense
Murder and Ill-Treatment of Civilian Populations
Deportation for Slave Labour
Murder and Ill-Treatment of Prisoners of War
Killing of Hostages
Plunder of Public and Private Property (First Part)
Plunder of Public and Private Property (Second
The Exaction of Collective Penalties
Wanton Destruction of Cities, Towns and Villages
Conscription of Civilian Labour
Forcing Civilians of Occupied Territories to Swear
Allegiance to a Hostile Power
Germanization of Occupied Territories
Count Four-Crimes Against Humanity/Statement of
Murder, Extermination, Enslavement,
Deportation, and other Inhumane Acts Committed Against Civilian Populations Before and
During the War
Persecution on Political, Racial, and
Religious Grounds in Execution of and in Connection with the Common Plan Mentioned in
INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT
BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
HERMANN WILHELM GÖRING, RUDOLF HESS, JOACHIM
VON RIBBENTROP, ROBERT LEY, WILHELM KEITEL, ERNST KALTENBRUNNER,
ALFRED ROSENBERG, HANS FRANK, WILHELM FRICK,
JULIUS STREICHER, WALTER FUNK, HJALMAR SCHACHT,
GUSTAV KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH, KARL DÖNITZ,
ERICH RAEDER, BALDUR VON SCHIRACH, FRITZ SAUCKEL, ALFRED JODL,
MARTIN BORMANN, FRANZ VON PAPEN, ARTHUR SEYSS-INQUART,
ALBERT SPEER, CONSTANTIN VON NEURATH, and HANS
FRITZSCHE, Individually and as Members of Any of the Following Groups or Organizations to
which They Respectively Belonged, Namely: DIE REICHSREGIERUNG (REICH CABINET); DAS KORPS
DER POLITISCHEN LEITER DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (LEADERSHIP CORPS OF THE NAZI PARTY);
DIE SCHUTZSTAFFELN DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (commonly known as
the "SS") and including DER SICHERHEITSDIENST
(commonly known as the "SD"); DIE GEHEIME
STAATSPOLIZEI (SECRET STATE POLICE, commonly known as the "GESTAPO"); DIE STURMABTEILUNGEN DER NSDAP (commonly
known as the "SA"); and the GENERAL STAFF and HIGH
COMMAND of the GERMAN ARMED FORCES, all as defined in Appendix B,
I. The United States of America, the French Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics by the undersigned,
Robert H. Jackson, Francois de Menthon, Hartley Shawcross, and R. A. Rudenko, duly
appointed to represent their respective Governments in the investigation of the charges
against and the prosecution of the major war criminals, pursuant to the Agreement of
London dated 8 August 1945, and the Charter of this Tribunal annexed. thereto, hereby
accuse as guilty, in the respects hereinafter set forth, of Crimes against Peace, War
Crimes, and Crimes against Humanity, and of a Common Plan or Conspiracy to commit those
Crimes, all as defined in the Charter of the Tribunal, and accordingly name as defendants
in this cause and as indicted on the counts hereinafter set out: HERMANN WILHELM GÖRING,
RUDOLF HESS, JOACHIM VON RIBBENTROP, ROBERT LEY, WILHELM KEITEL, ERNST KALTENBRUNNER,
ALFRED ROSENBERG, HANS FRANK, WILHELM FRICK, JULIUS STREICHER, WALTER FUNK, HJALMAR
SCHACHT, GUSTAV KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH, KARL DÖNITZ, ERICH RAEDER, BALDUR VON
SCHIRACH, FRITZ SAUCKEL, ALFRED JODL, MARTIN BORMANN, FRANZ VON PAPEN, ARTHUR
SEYSS-INQUART, ALBERT SPEER, CONSTANTIN VON NEURATH and HANS FRITZSCHE, individually and
as members of any of the groups or organizations next hereinafter named.
II. The following. are named as groups or organizations (since dissolved) which should
be declared criminal by reason of their aims and the means used for the accomplishment
thereof and in connection with the conviction of such of the named defendants as were
members thereof: DIE REICHSREGIERUNG (REICH CABINET); DAS KORPS DER POLITISCHEN LEITER DER
NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (LEADERSHIP CORPS OF THE NAZI PARTY); DIE
SCHUTZSTAFFELN DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (commonly known as the
"SS") and including DER SICHERHEITSDIENST (commonly known as the
"SD"); DIE GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI (SECRET STATE POLICE, commonly known as the
"GESTAPO"); DIE STURMABTEILUNGEN DER NSDAP (commonly known as the
"SA"); and the GENERAL STAFF and HIGH COMMAND of the GERMAN ARMED FORCES.
The identity and membership of the groups or organizations referred to in the foregoing
titles are hereinafter in Appendix B more particularly defined.
Count One- The Common Plan or Conspiracy [omitted here]
Count Two- Crimes Against Peace [omitted here]
(Charter, Article 6, espcially 6 (b))
VIII, Statement of the Offense
All the defendants committed War Crimes between 1 September 1939 and 8 May 1945, in
Germany and in all those countries and territories occupied by the German Armed Forces
since 1 September 1939, and in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Italy, and on the High Seas.
All the defendants, acting in concert with others, formulated and executed a Common
Plan or Conspiracy to commit War Crimes as defined in Article 6 (b) of the Charter. This
plan involved, among other things, the practice of "total war" including methods
of com-bat and of military occupation in direct conflict with the laws and customs of war,
and the commission of crimes perpetrated on the field of battle during encounters with
enemy armies, and against prisoners of war, and in occupied territories against the
civilian population of such territories.
The said War Crimes were committed by the defendants and by other persons for whose
acts the defendants are responsible (under Article 6 of the Charter) as such other persons
when committing the said War Crimes performed their acts in execution of a common plan and
conspiracy to commit the said War Crimes, in the formulation and execution of which plan
and conspiracy all the defendants participated as leaders, organizers, instigators, and
These methods and crimes constituted violations of international conventions, of
internal penal laws and of the general principles of criminal law as derived from the
criminal law of all civilized nations, and were involved in and part of a systematic
course of conduct.
(A) MURDER AND ILL-TREATMENT OF CIVILIAN
POPULATIONS OF OR IN OCCUPIED TERRITORY AND ON THE HIGH SEAS
Throughout the period of their occupation of territories overrun by their armed forces
the defendants, for the purpose of systematically terrorizing the inhabitants, murdered
and tortured civilians, and ill-treated them, and imprisoned them without legal process.
The murders and ill-treatment were carried out by divers means, including shooting,
hanging, gassing, starvation, gross overcrowding, systematic under-nutrition, systematic
imposition of labor tasks beyond the strength of those ordered to carry them out,
inadequate provision of surgical and medical services, kickings, beatings, brutality and
torture of all kinds, including the use of hot irons and pulling out of fingernails and
the performance of experiments by means of operations and otherwise on living human
subjects. In some occupied territories the defendants interfered in religious matters,
persecuted members of the clergy and monastic orders, and expropriated church property.
They conducted deliberate and systematic genocide, viz., the extermination of racial and
national groups, against the civilian populations of certain occupied territories in order
to destroy particular races and classes of people and national, racial, or religious
groups, particularly Jews, Poles, and Gypsies and others.
Civilians were systematically subjected to tortures of all kinds, with the object of
Civilians of occupied countries were subjected systematically to "protective
arrests" whereby they were arrested and imprisoned without any trial and any of the
ordinary protections of the law, and they were imprisoned under the most unhealthy and
inhumane conditions. In the concentration camps were many prisoners who were classified
"Nacht und Nebel". These were entirely cut off from the world and were allowed
neither to receive nor to send letters. They disappeared without trace and no announcement
of their fate was ever made by the German authorities.
Such murders and ill-treatment were contrary to international conventions, in
particular to Article 46 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the
general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized
nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and
to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.
The following particulars and all the particulars appearing later in this count are set
out herein by way of example only, are not exclusive of other particular cases, and are
stated without prejudice to the right of the Prosecution to adduce evidence of other cases
of murder and ill-treatment of civilians.
1. In France, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Norway, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Channel
Islands (hereinafter called the "Western Countries") and in that part of Germany
which lies west of a line drawn due north and south through the center of Berlin
(hereinafter called "Western Germany").
Such murder and ill-treatment took place in concentration camps and
similar establishments set up by the defendants, and particularly in the concentration
camps set up at Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau, Breendonck, Grini, Natzweiler, Ravensbruck,
Vught, and Amersfoort, and in numerous cities, towns, and villages, including
Oradour-sur-Glane, Trondheim, and Oslo.
Crimes committed in France or against French citizens took the following forms:
Arbitrary arrests were carried out under political or racial pretexts: they were both
individual and collective; notable in Paris (round-up of the 18th Arrondissement by the
Field Gendarmerie, round-up of the Jewish population of the 11th Arrondissement in August
1941, round-up of Jewish intellectuals in December 1941, round-up in July 1942); at
Clermont-Ferrand (round-up of professors and students of the University of Strasbourg, who
were taken to Clermont-Ferrand on 25 November 1943); at Lyons; at Marseilles (round-up of
40,000 persons in January 1943); at Grenoble (round-up on 24 December 1943); at Cluny
(round-up on 24 December 1944); at Figeac (round-up in May 1944); at Saint Pol de Leon
(round-up in July 1944); at Locmine (round-up on 3 July 1944); at Eysieux (round-up in May
1944) and at Moussey (round-up in September 1944). These arrests were followed by brutal
treatment and tortures carried out by the most diverse methods, such as immersion in icy
water, asphyxiation, torture of the limbs, and the use of instruments of torture, such as
the iron helmet and electric current, and practiced in all the prisons of France, notabIy
in Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, Rennes, Metz, Clermont-Ferrand, Toulouse, Nice, Grenoble,
Annecy, Arras, Bethune, Lille, Loos, Valenciennes, Nancy, Troyes, and Caen, and in the
torture chambers fitted up at the Gestapo centers.
In the concentration camps, the health regime and the labor regime were such that the
rate of mortality (alleged to be from natural causes) attained enormous proportions, for
1. Out of a convoy of 230 French women deported from Compiegne to Auschwitz in
January 1943, 180 died of exhaustion by the end of four months.
2. 143 Frenchmen died of exhaustion between 23 March and 6 May 1943, in Block 8
3. 1,797 Frenchmen died of exhaustion between 21 November 1943, and 15 March
1945, in the Block at Dora.
4. 465 Frenchmen died of general debility in November 1944, at Dora.
5. 22,761 deportees died of exhaustion at Buchenwald between 1 January 1943, and
15 April 1945.
6. 11,560 detainees died of exhaustion at Dachau Camp (most of them in Block 30
reserved for the sick and the infirm) between 1 January and 15 April 1945.
7. 780 priests died of exhaustion at Mauthausen.
8. Out of 2,200 Frenchmen registered at Flossenburg Camp, 1, 600 died from
supposedly natural causes.
Methods used for the work of extermination in concentration camps were:
Bad treatment, pseudo-scientific experiments (sterilization of women at Auschwitz and
at Ravensbriick, study of the evolution of cancer of the womb at Auschwitz, of typhus at
Buchenwald, anatomical research at Natzweiller, heart injections at Buchenwald, bone
grafting and muscular excisions at Ravensbruck, etc.), gas chambers, gas wagons, and
crematory ovens. Of 228,000 French political and racial deportees in concentration camps,
only 28,000 survived.
In France systematic extermination was practiced also, notably at Asq on 1 April 1944,
at Colpo on 22 July 1944, at Buzet-sur-Tarn on 6 July 1944 and on 17 August 1944, at
Pluvignier on 8 July 1944, at Rennes on 8 June 1944, at Grenoble on 8 July 1944, at Saint
Flour on 10 June 1914, at Ruisnes on 10 July 1944, at Nimes, at Tulle, and at Nice, where,
in July 1944, the victims of torture were exposed to the population, and at
Oradour-sur-Glane where the entire village population was shot or burned alive in the
The many charnel pits give proof of anonymous massacres. Most notable of these are the
charnel pits of Paris (Cascade du Bois de Boulogne), Lyons, Saint-Genis-Laval, Besancon,
Petit-Saint-Bernard, Aulnat, Caen, Port-Louis, Charleval, Fontainebleau, Bouconne,
Gabaudet, Lhermitage Lorges, Morlaas, Bordelongue, Signe.
In the course of a premeditated campaign of terrorism, initiated in Denmark by the
Germans in the latter part of 1943, 600 Danish subjects were murdered and, in addition,
throughout the German occupation of Denmark, large numbers of Danish subjects were
subjected to torture and ill-treatment of all sorts. In addition, approximately 500 Danish
subjects were murdered, by torture and otherwise, in German prisons and concentration
In Belgium between 1940 and 1944 tortures by various means, but identical in each
place, were carried out at Brussels, Liege, Mons, Ghent, Namur, Antwerp, Tournai, Arlon,
Charleroi, and Dinant.
At Vught, in Holland, when the camp was evacuated about 400 persons were murdered by
In Luxembourg, during the German occupation, 500 persons were murdered and, in
addition, another 521 were illegally executed, by order of such special tribunals as the
so-called "Sondergericht". Many more persons in Luxembourg were subjected to
torture and mistreatment by the Gestapo. Not less than 4,000 Luxembourg nationals were
imprisoned during the period of German occupation, and of these at least 400 were
Between March 1944 and April 1945, in Italy, at least 7,500 men, women, and children,
ranging in years from infancy to extreme old age were murdered by the German soldiery at
Civitella, in the Ardeatine Caves in Rome, and at other places.
2. In the U. S. S. R., i. e., in the Bielorussian, Ukrainian, Estonian, Latvian,
Lithuanian, Karelo-Finnish, and Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republics, in 19 regions of t h
e Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, and in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia,
Greece, and the Balkans (hereinafter called "the Eastern Countries") and in that
part of Germany which lies east of a line drawn north and south through the center of
Berlin (hereinafter called "Eastern Germany").
From 1 September 1939, when the German Armed Forces in-vaded Poland, and from 22 June
1941, when they invaded the U. S. S. R., the German Government and the German High Command
adopted a systematic policy of murder and ill-treatment of the civil-ian populations of
and in the Eastern Countries as they were successively occupied by the German Armed
Forces. These murders and ill-treatments were carried on continuously until the German
Armed Forces were driven out of the said countries.
Such murders and ill-treatments included:
(a) Murders and ill-treatments at concentration camps and similar establishments set up
by the Germans in the Eastern Countries and in Eastern Germany including those set up at
Maidanek and Auschwitz. The said murders and ill-treatments were carried out by divers
means including all those set out above, as follows:
About 1,500, 000 persons were exterminated in Maidanek and about 4,000,000 persons were
exterminated in Auschwitz, among whom were citizens of Poland, the U. S. S. R., the United
States of America, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, and other countries.
In the Lwow region and in the city of Lwow the Germans exterminated about 700,000
Soviet people, including 70 persons in the field of the arts, science, and technology, and
also citizens of the United States of America, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia,
and Holland, brought to this region from other concentration camps.
In the Jewish ghetto from 7 September 1941 to 6 July 1943, over 133,000 persons were
tortured and shot.
Mass shooting of the population occurred in the suburbs of the city and in the Livenitz
In the Ganov camp 200,000 peaceful citizens were exterminated. The most refined methods
of cruelty were employed in this extermination, such as disembowelling and the freezing of
human beings in tubs of water. Mass shootings took place to the accompaniment of the music
of an orchestra recruited from the persons interned. Beginning with June 1943, the Germans
carried out measures to hide the evidence of their crimes. They exhumed and burned
corpses, and they crushed the bones with machines and used them for fertilizer.
At the beginning of 1944 in the Ozarichi region of the Bielorussian S. S. R., before
liberation by the Red Army, the Germans established three concentration camps without
shelters, to which they committed tens of thousands of persons from the neighboring
territories. They brought many people to these camps from typhus hospitals intentionally,
for the purpose of infecting the other persons interned and for spreading the disease in
territories from which the Germans were being driven by the Red Army. In these camps there
were many murders and crimes.
In the Estonian S. S. R. they shot tens of thousands of persons and in one day alone,
19 September 1944, in Camp Kloga, the Germans shot 2,000 peaceful citizens. They burned
the bodies on bonfires.
In the Lithuanian S. S. R. there were mass killings of Soviet citizens, namely: in
Panerai at least 100,000; in Kaunas more than 70,000; in Alitus about 60,000; at Prenai
more than 3,000; in Villiampol about 8,000; in Mariampol about 7,000; in Trakai and
neighboring towns 37,640.
In the Latvian S. S. R. 577,000 persons were murdered.
As a result of the whole system of internal order maintained in all camps, the interned
persons were doomed to die. In a secret instruction entitled "the internal regime in
concentration camps", signed personally by Himmler in 1941 severe measures of
punishment were set forth for the internees. Masses of prisoners of war were shot, or died
from the cold and torture.
(b) Murders and ill-treatments at places in the Eastern Countries and in the Soviet
Union, other than in the camps referred to in (a) above, included, on various dates during
the occupation by the German Armed Forces:
The destruction in the Smolensk region' of over 135,000 Soviet citizens.
Among these, near the village of Kholmetz of the Sychev region, when the military
authorities were required to remove the mines from an area, on the order of the Commander
of the 101st German Infantry Division, Major-General Fisler, the German soldiers gathered
the inhabitants of the village of Kholmetz and forced them to remove mines from the road.
All of these people lost their lives as a result of exploding mines.
In the Leningrad region there were shot and tortured over 172,000 persons, including
over 20,000 persons who were killed in the city of Leningrad by the barbarous artillery
barrage and the bombings.
In the Stavropol region in an anti-tank trench close to the station of Mineralny Vody,
and in other cities, tens of thousands of persons were exterminated.
In Pyatigorsk many were subjected to torture and criminal treatment, including
suspension from the ceiling and other methods. Many of the victims of these tortures were
In Krasnodar some 6,700 civilians were murdered by poison gas in gas vans, or were
tortured and shot.
In the Stalingrad region more than 40,000 persons were tortured and killed. After the
Germans were expelled from Stalingrad, more than a thousand mutilated bodies of local
inhabitants were found with marks of torture. One hundred and thirty-nine women had their
arms painfully bent backward and held by wires. From some their breasts had been cut off
and their ears, fingers, and toes had been amputated. The bodies bore the marks of burns.
On the bodies of the men the five pointed star was burned with an iron or cut with a
knife. Some were disembowelled.
In Ore1 over 5,000 persons were murdered.
In Novgorod and in the Novgorod region many thousands of Soviet citizens were killed by
shooting, starvation, and torture. In Minsk tens of thousands of citizens were similarly
In the Crimea peaceful citizens were gathered on barges, taken out to sea and drowned,
over 144,000 persons being exterminated in this manner.
In the Soviet Ukraine there were monstrous criminal acts of the Nazi conspirators. In
Babi Yar, near Kiev, they shot over 100,000 men, women, children, and old people. In this
city in January 1942, after the explosion in German Headquarters on Dzerzhinsky Street the
Germans arrested as hostages 1,250 persons--old men, minors, women with nursing infants.
In Kiev they killed over 195,000 persons.
In Rovno and the Rovno region they killed and tortured over 100,000 peaceful citizens.
In Dnepropetrovsk, near the Transport Institute, they shot or threw alive into a great
ravine 11,000 women, old men, and children.
In Kamenetz-Podolsk Region 31,000 Jews were shot and exter-minated, including 13,000
persons brought there from Hungary.
In the Odessa Region at least 200,000 Soviet citizens were killed.
In Kharkov about 195,000 persons were either tortured to death, shot, or gassed in gas
In Gomel the Germans rounded up the population in prison, and tortured and tormented
them, and then took them to the center of the city and shot them in public.
In the city of Lyda in the Grodnen region on 8 May 1942, 5,670 persons were completely
undressed, driven into pens in groups of 100, and then shot by machine guns. Many were
thrown in the graves while they were still alive.
Along with adults the Nazi conspirators mercilessly destroyed even children. They
killed them with their parents, in groups, and alone. They killed them in children's homes
and hospitals, burying the living in the graves, throwing them into flames, stabbing them
with bayonets, poisoning them, conducting experiments upon them, extracting their blood
for the use of the German Army, throwing them into prison and Gestapo torture chambers and
concentration camps, where the children died from hunger, torture, and epidemic diseases.
From 6 September to 24 November 1942, in the region of Brest, Pinsk, Kobren, Dyvina,
Malority, and Berezy-Kartuzsky about 400 children were shot by German punitive units.
In the Yanov camp in the city of Lwow the Germans killed 8,000 children in two months.
In the resort of Tiberda the Germans annihilated 500 children suffering from
tuberculosis of the bone, who were in the sanatorium for the cure.
On the territory of the Latvian S. S. R. the German usurpers killed thousands of
children, whom they had brought there with their parents from the Bielorussian S. S. R.,
and from the Kalinin, Kaluga, and other regions of the R. S. F. S. R.
In Czechoslovakia as a result of torture, beating, hanging, and shootings, there were
annihilated in Gestapo prisons in Brno, Seim, and other places over 20,000 persons.
Moreover, many thousands of internees were subjected to criminal treatment, beatings, and
Both before the war, as well as during the war, thousands of Czech patriots, in
particular Catholics and Protestants, lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc., were arrested as
hostages and imprisoned. A large number of these hostages were killed by the Germans.
In Greece in October 1941, the male populations between 16 and 60 years of age of the
Greek villages Amelofito, Kliston, Kizonia Mesovunos, Selli, Ano-Kerzilion and
Kato-Kerzilion were shot-in all 416 persons.
In Yugoslavia many thousands of civilians were murdered. Other examples are given under
paragraph (D), "Killing of Hostages", below.
(B) DEPORTATION FOR SLAVE LABOR AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATIONS OF AND IN OCCUPIED TERRITORIES
During the whole period of the occupation by Germany of both the Western and the
Eastern Countries it was the policy of the German Government and of the German High
Command to deport able-bodied citizens from such occupied countries to Germany and to
other occupied countries for the purpose of slave labor upon defense works, in factories,
and in other tasks connected with the German war effort.
In pursuance of such policy there were mass deportations from all the Western and
Eastern Countries for such purposes during the whole period of the occupation.
Such deportations were contrary to international conventions, in particular to Article
46 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general principles of
criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal
penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of
Particulars of deportations, by way of example only and without prejudice to the
production of evidence of other cases are as follows:
1. From the Western Countries:
From France the following deportations of persons for political and racial reasons took
place-each of which consisted of from 1,500 to 2,500 deportees:
1940 . . . . . . . . 3 Transports
1941 . . . . . . . . 14 Transports
1942 . . . . . . . .104 Transports
1943 . . . . . . . ..257 Transports
1944 . . . ; . . . . 326 Transports
Such deportees were subjected to the most barbarous conditions of overcrowding; they
were provided with wholly insufficient clothing and were given little or no food for
The conditions of transport were such that many deportees died in the course of the
journey, for example:
In one of the wagons of the train which left Compiegne for Buchenwald, on 17 September
1943, 80 men died out of 130;
On 4 June 1944, 484 bodies were taken out of the train at Sarrebourg;
In a train which left Compiegne on 2 July 1944 for Dachau, more than 600 dead were
found on arrival, i. e. one-third of the total number;
In a train which left Compiegne on 16 January 1944 for Buchen-wald, more than 100 men
were confined in each wagon, the dead and the wounded being heaped in the last wagon
during the journey;
In April 1945, of 12,000 internees evacuated from Buchenwald, 4,000 only were still
alive when the marching column arrived near Regensburg.
During the German occupation of Denmark, 5,200 Danish subjects were deported to Germany
and there imprisoned in concentration camps and other places.
In 1942 and thereafter 6,000 nationals of Luxembourg were deported from their country
under deplorable conditions as a result of which many of them perished.
From Belgium between 1940 and 1944 at least 190,000 civilians were deported to Germany
and used as slave labor. Such deportees were subjected to ill-treatment and many of them
were compelled to work in armament factories.
From Holland, between 1940 and 1944, nearly half a million civilians were deported to
Germany and to other occupied countries.
2. From the Eastern Countries:
The German occupying authorities deported from the Soviet Union to slavery about
4,978,000 Soviet citizens.
Seven hundred and fifty thousand Czechoslovakian citizens were taken away from
Czechoslovakia and forced to work in the German war machine in the interior of Germany.
On 4 June 1941, in the city of Zagreb (Yugoslavia) a meeting of German representatives
was called with the Councillor Von Troll presiding. The purpose was to set up the means of
deporting the Yugoslav population from Slovenia. Tens of thousands of persons were
deported in carrying out this plan.
(C) MURDER AND ILL-TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF
WAR, AND. OF OTHER MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE COUNTRIES WITH WHOM GERMANY WAS AT
WAR, AND OF PERSONS ON THE HIGH SEAS
The defendants murdered and ill-treated prisoners of war by denying them adequate food,
shelter, clothing and medical care and attention; by forcing them to labor in inhumane
conditions; by torturing them and subjecting them to inhuman indignities and by killing
them. The German Government and the German High Command imprisoned prisoners of war in
various concentration camps, where they were killed and subjected to inhuman treatment by
the various methods set forth in paragraph VIII (A). Members of the armed forces of the
countries with whom Germany was at war were frequently murdered while in the act of
surrendering. These murders and ill-treatment were contrary to International Conventions,
particularly Articles 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, and to Articles 2, 3,
4, and 6 of the Prisoners of War Convention (Geneva 1929), the laws and customs of war,
the general principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized
nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed, and
to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.
Particulars by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of
other cases, are as follows:
1. In the Western Countries:
French officers who escaped from Oflag XC were handed over to the Gestapo and
disappeared; others were murdered by their guards; others sent to concentration camps and
exterminated. Among others, the men of Stalag VI C were sent to Buchenwald.
Frequently prisoners captured on the Western Front were obliged to march to the camps
until they completely collapsed. Some of them walked more than 600 kilometers with hardly
any food; they marched on for 48 hours running, without being fed; among them a certain
number died of exhaustion or of hunger; stragglers were systematically murdered.
The same crimes have been committed in 1943, 1944, and 1945 when the occupants of the
camps were withdrawn before the Allied advance; particularly during the withdrawal of the
prisoners of Sagan on 8 February 1945.
Bodily punishments were inflicted upon non-commissioned officers and cadets who refused
to work. On 24 December 1943, three French non-commissioned officers were murdered for
that motive in Stalag IV A. Many ill-treatments were inflicted without motive on other
ranks: stabbing with bayonets, striking with riflebutts, and whipping; in Stalag XX B the
sick themselves were beaten many times by sentries; in Stalag III B and Stalag III C,
worn-out prisoners were murdered or grievously wounded. In military jails in Graudenz for
instance, in reprisal camps as in Rava-Ruska, the food was so insufficient that the men
lost more than 15 kilograms in a few weeks. In May 1942, one loaf of bread only was
distributed in Rava-Ruska to each group of 35 men.
Orders were given to transfer French officers in chains to the camp of
Mauthausen after they had tried to escape. At their arrival in camp they were murdered,
either by shooting or by gas, and their bodies destroyed in the crematorium.
American prisoners, officers and men, were murdered in Normandy during the summer of
1944 and in the Ardennes in December 1944. American prisoners were starved, beaten, and
otherwise mistreated in numerous Stalags in Germany and in the occupied countries,
particularly in 1943, 1944, and 1945.
2. In the Eastern Countries:
At Orel prisoners of war were exterminated by starvation, shooting, exposure, and
Soviet prisoners of war were murdered en masse on orders from the High Command and the
Headquarters of the SIPO and SD. Tens of thousands of Soviet prisoners of war were
tortured and murdered at the "Gross Lazaret" at Slavuta.
In addition, many thousands of the persons referred to in paragraph VIII (A) 2, above,
were Soviet prisoners of war.
Prisoners of war who escaped and were recaptured were handed over to SIPO and SD for
Frenchmen fighting with the Soviet Army who were captured were handed over to the Vichy
Government for "proceedings".
In March 1944, 50 R. A. F. officers who escaped from Stalag Luft III at Sagan, when
recaptured, were murdered.
In September 1941, 11,000 Polish officers who were prisoners of war were killed in the
Katyn Forest near Smolensk.
In Yugoslavia the German Command and the occupying authorities in the person of the
chief officials of the Police, the SS troops (Police Lieutenant General Rosener) and the
Divisional Group Com-mand (General Kübler and others) in the period 1941-43 ordered the
shooting of prisoners of war.
(D) KILLING OF HOSTAGES
Throughout the territories occupied by the German Armed Forces in the course of waging
aggressive wars, the defendants adopted and put into effect on a wide scale the practice
of taking, and of killing, hostages from the civilian population. These acts were contrary
to international conventions, particularly Article 50 of the Hague Regulations, 1907, the
laws and customs of war, the general principles of criminal law as derived from the
criminal laws of all civilized nations, the internal penal laws of the countries in which
such crimes were committed, and to Article 6 (b) of the Charter.
Particulars by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of
other cases, are as follows:
1. In the Western Countries:
In France hostages were executed either individually or collectively; these executions
took place in all the big cities of France, among others in Paris, Bordeaux, and Nantes,
as well as at Chateaubriant.
In Holland many hundreds of hostages were shot at the following among other
places-Rotterdam, Apeldoorn, Amsterdam, Benschop, and Haarlem.
In Belgium many hundreds of hostages were shot during the period 1940 to 1944.
2. In the Eastern Countries:
At Kragnevatz in Yugoslavia 2,300 hostages were shot in October 1941.
At Kralevo in Yugoslavia 5,000 hostages were shot.
(E) PLUNDER OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PROPERTY
The defendants ruthlessly exploited the people and the material resources of the
countries they occupied, in order to strengthen the Nazi war machine, to depopulate and
impoverish the rest of Europe, to enrich themselves and their adherents, and to promote
German economic supremacy over Europe.
The defendants engaged in the following acts and practices, among others:
1. They degraded the standard of life of the people of occupied countries and caused
starvation, by stripping occupied countries of foodstuffs for removal to Germany.
2. They seized raw materials and industrial machinery in all of the occupied countries,
removed them to Germany and used them in the interest of the German war effort and the
3. In all the occupied countries, in varying degrees, they confiscated businesses,
plants, and other property.
4. In an attempt to give color of legality to illegal acquisitions of property, they
forced owners of property to go through the forms of "voluntary" and
5. They established comprehensive controls over the economies of all of the occupied
countries and directed their resources, their production and their labor in the interests
of the German war economy, depriving the local populations of the products of essential
6. By a variety of financial mechanisms, they despoiled all of the occupied countries
of essential commodities and accumulated wealth, debased the local currency systems and
disrupted the local economies. They financed extensive purchases in occupied countries
through clearing arrangements by which they exacted loans from the occupied countries.
They imposed occupation levies, exacted financial contributions, and issued occupation
currency, far in excess of occupation costs. They used these excess funds to finance the
purchase of business properties and supplies in the occupied countries.
7. They abrogated the rights of the local populations in the occupied portions of the
U. S. S. R. and in Poland and in other countries to develop or manage agricultural and
industrial properties, and reserved this area for exclusive settlement, development, and
ownership by Germans and their so-called racial brethren.
8. In further development of their plan of criminal exploitation, they destroyed
industrial cities, cultural monuments, scientific institutions, and property of all types
in the occupied territories to eliminate the possibility of competition with Germany.
9. From their program of terror, slavery, spoliation, and organized outrage, the Nazi
conspirators created an instrument for the personal profit and aggrandizement of
themselves and their adherents. They secured for themselves and their adherents:
(a) Positions in administration of business involving power, influence, and lucrative
(b) The use of cheap forced labor.
(c) The acquisition on advantageous terms of foreign properties, business interests,
and raw materials.
(d) The basis for the industrial supremacy of Germany.
These acts were contrary to international conventions, particularly Articles 46 to 56
inclusive of the Hague Regulations,. 1907, the laws and customs of war, the general
principles of criminal law as derived from the criminal laws of all civilized nations, the
internal penal laws of the countries in which such crimes were committed and to Article 6
(b) of the Charter.
Particulars (by way of example and without prejudice to the production of evidence of
other cases) are as follows:
1. Western Countries:
There was plundered from the Western Countries, from 1940 to 1944, works of art,
artistic objects, pictures, plastics, furniture, textiles, antique pieces, and similar
articles of enormous value to the number of 21,993.
In France statistics show the following:
Removal of Raw Materials.
|Petrol and Fuel
and various other products to a total value of 79,961,423,000 francs.
Removal of Industrial Equipment.
Total: 9,759,861,000 francs, of which 2,626,479,000 francs of machine tools.
Removal of Agricultural Produce.
Total: 126,655,852,000 francs, i. e., for the principal products.
|Milk (concentrated and in powder)
|Various kinds of alcohol
Removal of Manufactured Products.
To a total of 184,640,000,000 francs.
Francs: 257,020,024,000 from private enterprise.
Francs: 55,000,100,000 from the State.
From June 1940 to September 1944 the French Treasury was compelled to pay to Germahy
Looting and Destruction of Works of Art.
The museums of Nantes, Nancy, Old-Marseilles were looted.
Private collections of great value were stolen. In this way Raphaels, Vermeers, Van
Dycks, and works of Rubens, Holbein, Rembrandt, Watteau, Boucher disappeared. Germany
compelled France to deliver up "The Mystic Lamb" by Van Eyck, which Belgium had
entrusted to her.
In Norway and other occupied countries decrees were made by which the property of many
civilians, societies, etc., was confiscated. An immense amount of property of every kind
was plundered from France, Belgium, Norway, Holland, and Luxembourg.
As a result of the economic plundering of Belgium between 1940 and 1944 the damage
suffered amounted to 175 billions of Belgian francs.