Faculty of Economics and Social Science


Guide to History Resources on the Internet

[Note: the resources listed here remain to be ordered appropriately.  This will be undertaken during September/October,1998] 

Mailing List: PHILOFHI (PHILosophy OF HIstory and theoretical history). The list is open to all subjects and information connected with philosophy of history, metahistory, futures studies, global projects, etc.

General History Resources: Index of Resources for Historians from the University of Kansas. This is probably the most comprehensive listing of historical resources available on the Internet. Its extensiveness and variety can be gauged simply from its size, which at the last update in July 1996 amounted to 185K and included 1700 connections. This guide could not possibly review all of these sources. The list, which its compilers do not claim is exhaustive, indicates the scope and variety of resources for historians currently available and should be consulted.

It should be noted, however, that like many other subject directories, it tends to be exhaustive rather than specifically subject-oriented. There is some sense in which the content of any Web page could at some point be included under the heading `history'-(economics, graphic imagery, marketing, culture, etc.). Some of those included in this list focus on subject matters or issues which could have been left out of a listing which adhered to a somewhat more traditional conception of the `historical'. (For instance, African Graphics Arts Files, European Union Internet Resources, and the Comprehensive Weather Server). Although the page is intended as an index of resources for historians, there is much here which could easily have been omitted as the resources pointed to are not specifically aimed at historians, or any more useful to them than to political scientists, zoologists,or anyone else interested in navigating the Web or publishing Web pages. A radical weeding of some of this extraneous material would make it considerably more useful to historians, or anyone else interested in history.

A further drawback is the Anglo-Saxon/eurocentric focus, something which undoubtedly reflects what is currently available on the Web and Internet. Although there is an impressive section on Ancient Egypt, the section on Africa tends to be rather meagre, and many of the resources do not in fact tell you a great deal about African history, being rather, general links which include some references to Africa.

That said, there are many sections which collate an impressive variety of relevant resources.


World War I: World War I Document Archive. This is a useful and impressive collection of documents, treaties, articles, reports, commentaries, and miscellany. Its aim is to put online an archive of primary documents relating to WWI. The work has been undertaken by participants in the World War I Military History List (WWI-L).

It is divided into seven sections. The first, Conventions, Treaties, & Official Papers provides access to all the important treaties, including the Hague Convention, Treaty of London, Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Peace Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. The Documents by Year section links to some of the most important papers, speeches, and commentaries relating to the war, or of relevance as part of the historical backcloth. The pre-1914 section includes the Triple Alliance Articles (in French, with an English translation), the Schlieffen Plan, Hay's First Open Door Notes, and reports on various crises and affairs. The Post-1918 section, includes the Versailles Treaty and the Bryce Report on alleged German atrocities.

Official Documents are arranged by country and there is overlap with the materials subsumed under the Conventions and Documents by Year headings. Some idea of the scope and type of records available can be gleaned from the list currently available for Germany:

  • The German White Book
  • The Dual Alliance Between Austria-Hungary and Germany, October 7, 1879
  • The Triple Alliance, May 20, 1882
    (Eight articles in the original French). See also expanded version of 1912.
  • The Triple Alliance, May 20, 1882
    (English translation of the above). See also expanded version of 1912.
  • The Reinsurance Treaty, June 18, 1887
  • Amended Version of The Triple Alliance 5 December, 1912
    (Fifteen articles in the original French).
  • Amended Version of The Triple Alliance 5 December, 1912
    (English translation of the above).
  • The German Declaration of War on Russia, August 1, 1914
  • The Treaty of Alliance Between Germany and Turkey, August 2, 1914
  • The German Request for Free Passage Through Belgium, August 2, 1914
  • The Belgian Refusal of Free Passage, August 3, 1914
  • Japanese Ultimatum to Germany, August 15, 1914
  • Wilson's First Warning to the Germans, February 10, 1915
  • The Reichstag Peace Resolution, July 19, 1917
  • The Armistice Demands, November 10, 1918
  • Abdication Proclamation of Wilhelm II, November 28, 1918
  • Report on War Guilt by the Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War, 1918
  • US Peace Treaty with Germany, 25 August, 1921
  • The Biographical Dictionary provides brief, but adequate for many purposes, details on both central and marginal figures. Each biography has links to other "relevant" biographies. The section on Commentary Articles contains a collection of articles ranging over various aspects of the War and its origins.

    This site is under constant development, is already a very useful resource for locating some primary and other materials relating to the First World War, and one that it is worth keeping an eye on.


    Vietnam War: The Vietnam War History Page Page focusing on the political and military conflicts over Vietnam, 1945-1975. Project of Dr Ron Nurse and students at Virginia Tech University. Links to various resources available over the Web relating to the War, to Vietnam and the Vietnamese. Some of the resources do not fall, strictly speaking, into the category "historical".


    Historical Documents: United States The University of Oklahoma Law Center provides access to a collection of American historical documents, beginning in the seventeenth century to the present. Among those from the 17th century are the Virginia Charters, the Mayflower Compact and the Charter of Massachusetts Bay. The eighteenth century collection is much larger and includes a wide variety of documents, among which are the Articles of Confederation, the Delcaration of Independence, the First State of the Union Address, the Fugitive Slave Act, the works of Benjamin Franklin and Papers of George Washington. In addition to the inaugural addresses of the Presidents, the nineteenth century collection includes a range of documents relating to the Civil War. Those of the twentieth century include the declarations of war and surrender documents concerning Germany and Japan, the North Atlantic Treaty, the Truman Doctrine, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. The collection is being added to regularly.


    United States: Civil War


    United States: Presidents Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States, from George Washington to George Bush This resource has been made available by the Bartleby Library at the University of Columbia. Although the title suggests that the addresses end with those of George Bush, those of Bill Clinton have been added. Photographs of the Presidents are also available.


    Journal: Essays in History is published by The Corcoran Department of History, University of Virginia. Volume 33, 1990-91 was the first published online.

    Primary Resources: Maps The Rare Map Collection of the Hargrett Library, University of Georgia, has made available twenty percent of its library in digital form on the Web. The Library's collection extends to some 800 historical maps, including some of those of early cartographers like Sabastian Munster and William Blaeu. Those available on line are classified under: the New World, Colonial America, Revolutionary America, the Civil War, and Transportation. There are also historical maps of Georgia, including city maps and seaports on the Atlantic coast. The maps, of course, are quite large, generally between 150-500KB, with an average of approximately 230KB. A useful resource whose constituten parts are easily accessible.

    World War I: The Great War Society aims to study all aspects of the Great War and its effect on the 20th century The two main features of interest here are a page with links to other Great War sites, and the journal of the society, Relevance which is published online at quarterly intervals. Articles of previous issues are archived.


    Books: World War II Stone and Stone Second World War Books provides very extensive bibliographical information on WWII books from this Web site, and links to other sites it maintains which provide data/bibliographies on military books. At this page it also provides some reviews of recent additions to the literature in this field, as well as books included in catalogues of other publishing houses. The bibliographical database contains thousands of listings (5439 on 19/12/96) and is probably the largest such database on the Web. The database can be searched by either author or title. For each entry information standard publishing information is available, as well as the price, and the distributor/dealer. Many of those classified in the database are out of print, or rare books. There is a separate list of information on dealers and publishers. For further information on the database see the page which expounds on the data included in the bibliography.

    This is an important and useful bibliographic resource for those interested in printed materials on military matters. There are also some links to other sites dealing with military issues. 

    Journal: History Reviews On-line. Published by the University of California, volumes online since the summer of 1995. The materials reviewed include books, CD-Roms and maps, organised by major geographical regions, topics, or periods: general, medieval, Modern Europe, Latin America, United States, Computers, Internet and WWW. 

    Journal: TheCanadian Journal of History has produced three online editions in 1996. The articles included in these three volumes cover a wide spectrum, including medieval English economic history, pre-WWI British foreign policy, internal security in wartime Japan, and pre-war Italian socialism. 

    Biographies Peter Rasmussen, based in Denmark, has provided a very useful start to a web index of significant Historians and Philosophers. It is very much a work in progress. At present it is subdivided into four main historical period files: Classical (until 500), Medieval and Renaissance (500-1500), Early Modern (1500-1750) and Modern (1750-present). Each file is presented in tabular form with, minimally, life span dates, country of residence and specialism, and links to major works and Web pages online, if available. For many this includes links to biographical and autobiographical works. In some cases there more detailed biographical information is included in files at this site. The volume of material authored by the historians and philosophers included in the index is variable, and available in a variety of formats: some as text for downloading, as pdf files (requiring an Adobe viewer), or in html. This is a very useful resource for tracking down biographical information and online texts of historians and philosophers. 

    Period: Eighteenth-Century Studies is part of the very impressive collection of Web presentations at Carnegie Mellon University. This collection archives works of the eighteenth century from the perspectives of literary and cultural studies. Novels, plays, memoirs, treatises and poems of the period are kept here (in some cases, influential texts from before 1700 or after 1800 as well), along with modern criticism. Unfortunately, it is not easy to box Web resources into tidy compartments, and this compilaltion includes many resources which will be of interest to political scientists, sociologists, mathematicians, and philosophers (Berkeley, Paine, Bentham, Burke, Habermas, Leibnitz), to mention the most immediately apparent. Hidden among the list are links to relevant mailing lists (C18-L, C18-Studies, 18thC at CMU), As with most of CMU compilations, this is a useful resource and starting point. 

    Theology/General The Christian Classics Ethereal Library is a large collection, primarily of Classic Christian books in electronic format. The largest single compendium is the thirty eight volumes of The Early Church Fathers, being writings covering the first 800 years of the Church. It is divided into three series. Some portions, primarily of bibliographic significance, have been omitted from the electronic edition (prefaces, footnotes, indices). The volumes are available in a variety of formats, including many which have been subdivided into html files. Those that have not can be downloaded in various formats in full, although they are large, 1.5 to 3.5MB. Detailed instructions relating to WinHelp files, which enable full text search and annotations, are available.

    There is also a reference section, which includes a Bible and Concordance. searchable and available in multiple languages, a synopsis of the Bible, and various biblical dictionaries.

    The other available texts are divided into fiction/non-fiction. The non-fiction section ranged widely over various religious or religious commentary texts. It includes writings of Aquinas, Augustine, Benedict, Bunyan, Calvin, Dante, Fox, Luther, and Wesley. The fiction section is still small, but includes Chesteron, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy.

    This collection is being added to continuously. 

    Economic History The History of Economics Internet References lists a substantial number of links to resources on economic history. There are quite a few resources referenced here, and a useful section on forthcoming conferences.


    Bibliography: Witchcraft Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and America is a bibliography compiled by Jeffrey Merrick, Univ. Wisc. Milwaukee, enlarged and ammended by Richard M Golden of the University of North Texas, and converted to Chicago Manual Style by Christopher Koontz, UNT. This is the third version of the bibliography. It is very large, 203KB, and dated August-October, 1996. It is subdivided by topic and country. 

    Late Antiquity: Worlds of Late Antiquity has been put together by James J O'Donnell, of the University of Pennslyvania, primarily with courses taught there in mind. It collates resources relating to Augustine, Boethius, Cassiodorus, Erasmus, Gregorgy the Great, and others. There is a short bibliograhpy There are various texts of Augustine, including Confessiones, both the Latin and the English translation, de musica and de dialectica, and various essays and commentaries. There are some excerpts from Gibbons' Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, although one batch of excerpts seems to be taking the Reader's Digest approach to literature to extremes.

    Finally, there is the June 1996 issue of the Late Antiquity News, which is a newsletter, not surprisingly, on late antiquity. It covers news items, conferences, journal announcements, job opportunities, and compter matters, which includes a sectionion on Late Antiquity on the Inernet. That section is authored by Michael DiMaio, who notes that:

    Although students of Late Antiquity have traditionally relied on books and journals as source materials for their studies of the pe- riod, the advent of the Internet has changed all of this. Now, much of what was once only available in hard copy is beginning to appear in an electronic format in record time. This revolution in research material is not without its labor pains since the Internet is still in its infancy; for example, although Latin text can easily be re- trieved from the 'Net, Greek language text cannot be because, as far as I have been able to determine, no ASCII code has yet been estab- lished for the Greek alphabet. Until agreement can be reached on this point, Greek text has to be stored using the Roman alphabet effectively rendering the 'Net a useless tool in this area of Late Antiquity Studies.

    He further notes that as Web presentations are frequently being added or removed, or changing addresses, one of the best ways of keeping track of what and where things are going on is to subscribe to one or more of the elecgtronic mail groups, of which he recommends:

    Lt-Antiqu@vm.sc.edu / Late Antiquity
    Numism-l@vm.sc.edu / Ancient/Medieval numismatics
    Byzans-l@mizzou1.missouri.edu / Byzantine studies
    Romarch@rome.classics.lsa.umich.edu / Roman archaeology
    Mediev-l@ukanvm.bitnet / Medieval studies
    Classics@u.washington.edu / Classics

    I don't think that I would consider this to be a particularly comprehensive and well organised site, although DiMaio rates it highly, but it does have some very useful links, texts, essays, and commentaries.

    Theses: UK A listing of postgraduate theses completed or in progress in the United Kingdom. Those available online include those completed during the period 1981-1991, and those completed and in progress 1992-the present. A resource provided by the Institute of Historical Research. The information is classified by topic and period. The typography is unlikely to win any aesthetic/reader-friendliness awards. Use the Edit/Find option to track down items of interest. 

    Medieval: ORB, the On-Line Text Materials for Medieval Studies is a cooperative project amongst medieval historians to provide online primary and other sources for medieval studies. The resources available are located on servers designated by the contributors, the ORB pages acting as an index, reference shelf, or library to facilitate ease of use by those wishing to access these resources. This is an excellent resource.

    It is, of course, a work in progress and is expanding all the time, so, if your interest lies with medieval studies, you need to bookmark this site and check back regularly. The primary index is divided into: early medieval (antecedents and then to 1000), high medieval (1000-1300), late middle ages (1300-1500), religion and culture. Each section is, of course, subdivided further. It is impossible here to delve much beyond the primary pages. Some of the contributions are quite lengthy, such as Steven Muhlberger's Overview of Late Antiquity which is divided into five chapters.

    There are a lot of primary materials, such as E-Texts of Dante's Works, and, for Anglo-Saxon England, old English literature, texts and translations, maps, and images of works of art. In addition to a large number of links in some sections to other resources on the Web, there is a very large collection of bibliographies, both tied to specific articles, and specialist. Some of the Specialized Bibliographies are quite extensive (eg., Albertus Magnus [53KB], Castles [270KB], Crusades [34KB], Order of St John of the Hospital [74KB], Roman History [101KB].

    This is an excellent site that those interested in medieval history resources who wish to access or use them for teaching and research purposes need to explore. Located here are pointers to many of the most important medieval resources on the Internet. 

    Bibliography: Arthurian Legends The Sources for the Study of the Arthurian Legends page provides bibliographical references under various headings relating to the Arthurian legends: general resources, journals, Arthurian names, Medieval and Modern Arthurian Literature, art, anthologies, music, and others. 

    Bibliography: Roman An extensive (103KB) bibliography of modern English-language works on Roman history drawn from the University of Kansas library database. Subdivided into: general, prehistoric and Etrustcan Italy, republican Rome, imperial Rome, late antiquity, Roman Britain, Roman law. 

    Bibliography: Feudalism An extensive (53KB) checklist of books and articles in western languages related to feudalism in world history from the University of Kansas. 

    Medieval: The Labyrinth, sponsored by Georgetown University, is a Web presentation specialising in providing and linking to resources for medieval studies. In conception it is similar to the ORB project, and in fact the design and resources have a similar feel, although it is currently (April 1997) on a much larger scale. Its mission, too, it to arrange a free global information network providing organised access to resources for medieval studies. There is a large selection to choose from here.

    The resources are organised by texts (Latin, Old English, Middle English, French, Italian, German, and Spansih) through the Library menu, by subject areas (a long list which includes National Cultures [Anglo-Saxon, Germany, Iberia, Scandinavia], International Culture [including Art and Architecture, Philosophy and Theology, Sciences], and Special Topics [including Arthurian Studies, Heraldry, and Medieval Women]), pedagogical resources, on-line bibliographies from various hosts, discussion lists, electronic journals, and links to other online medieval resources.

    The above is just a brief outline description. There are links to a very large volume of resources from this site, including electronic versions of many original texts, scholarly articles and bibliographies, dictionaries, current news on conferences, electronic forums, etc. Jointly, all this should make this site a very good starting point for anyone interested in medievial studies. 

    Christianity: ICLNet (Institute for Christian Leadership Net) provides a Guide to Early Church Documents. Categories include: New Testament Canonical information, writings of the apostolic fathers (eg., first and second epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Martyrdom of Polycarp), Patristic texts (eg.,the writings of Tetrullian, Cyprian, and Augustine), Creeds and Canons, and later text (The Summar Theologica and Gregory of Nyassa). There are also links to other relevant sites. 

    Encyclopedia: Roman Emperors De Imperatoribus Romanis provides short biographical essays of all the Roman emperors, both in the Latin West and the Greek East, from the accession of the Emperor Augustus to the death of Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus. The essays are all peer reviewed and each has an attached bibliography. This is a work in progress, and many of the biographies remain to be written. The organisers are seeking scholars who would be willing to volunteer. 

    Bibliography: Books/WWII Stone and Stone Second Wolrd War Books is a clearinghouse for information on books relating to the Second World War and its immediate antecedents and consequeces. In addition to bibliographies/lists of books, there are details of prices, brief annotations in many instances, and email ordering facilities.

    From the main page there are links to particular distributors/dealers in Second World War books. There is no common search engine. Stone and Stone's list includes some 5300 volumes, which are listed by author and by title. Wolrd War II Books, which is a specialist mail order business with more than 7500 books in stock. Its collection is ordered by armies, regimental histories, HMSO and Official histories, biography and autobiograhpy, navies and submarines, Third Reich, war crimes, and a few others.

    This is a useful site for tracking down books it might be difficult otherwise to locate. 

    World War II :

    As you would probably expect, there is a considerable body of material on a wide range of topics relating to the Second World War, including its antecedents, proximate and immediate, its course, and some of its distinguishing characteristics. Some imaginative, comprehesive, and high quality Web presentations on particular topics have been created by individuals with an interest in a particular subject (Holocaust rescuers, naval battles, the war in the air, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki). Academic historians, departments, and networks have created a few extremely impressive collections of resources (the Avalon Project at Yale University). On the other hand, there is also a lot of dabbling and incomplete projects, some of which will undoubtedly be useful when more advanced.

    As with othe guides in this series my objective is not to be exhaustive. The resources listed below include some of the more comprehensive high quality Web presentations and compilations that I have tracked down. As these include projects which are not likely to disappear because they are institutionally based, keeping track of new additions to their resources, and links elsewhere, should enable you to keep abreast of what is available on the Internet. In addition, it is always useful to periodically conduct a search using one of the many engines which are available.

    Genealogies: Royal This is a conversion to html format of GEDCOM files. Each file in the list is approximately 25K. The original compiler, Denis Reid notes that: The weakest part of the Royals is in the French and Spanish lines. I found that many of the French Kings had multiple mistresses whose descendants claimed noble titles, and the Throne itself in some cases. I have had the hardest time finding good published sources for French and Spanish Royalty. Each entry provides information on dates (birth, christening, death) and relatives (parents, children, marriage), with the latter being hyperlinked to the relevant entry in the database. 

    Texts and Resources: The Department of History of Hanover College has compiled an impressive volume of links to digital copies of primary texts, and secondary sources covering all historical periods and geo-cultural regions. The primary goal of their http://history.hanover.edu/texts.htmlTexts and Documents Web presentation is to make primary texts available to students and faculty for use in classes.

    The listings are far too extensive to do justice to, or to give a broad overview of. Documents and resources cover economic, political, scientific, diplomatic, military, social and cultural developments, where available. The documents relating to the entry for Europe are divided by period into ancient (to 500 A.D.), medieval (500-1500), early modern (1500-1789), and modern (1789- ). For the Roman Republic section there are links to the writings of Cicero, Julius Cicero, Polybius and Titus Lucretius, as well as a chronology of ancient Rome, resources relating to slaver, the Punic Wars, warfare in the Roman world, etc. In the Greek History section there are links to access the writings of Herodotus, Livy, Plutarch, Ploybius, Thucydides and Xenophon.

    There is a large volume of material relating to European religious history, including pages on Catholic Reformation, The Crusades, The Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation. The Theology page compiles links to the writings of influential religious thinkers and activists, including Baxter, Boehme, Calvin, Fox, Pascal, Wesley. The pages on the Reformation include links to secondary resources as well as primary ones.

    In sum, a vast amount of information and links to primary and secondary resources. Where the files are on external servers this is indicated. Although the resources are well organised, the time required to locate specified documents would be reduced considerably if a search engine were available. Moreover, although there are pages relating to Africa, the Middle East, and India and South Asia, there are few, if any resources, linked to these pages. 

    Documents: Medieval The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, now part of ORB (The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies), aims to provide electronic texts useful for classroom work. Some of the texts available in electronic format are extremely lengthy, and there fore unsuited for instructional purposes, although, of course, well suited for research work. The portions of text available in many commercial selections, on the other hand, are too short. The compilers have endeavoured, therefore, to provide texts which in printed format would cover approximately three pages. At the moment, the texts available still address elite governmental, legal, religious and economic concerns. The similarity of the texts in a book like Tierney's The Middle Ages and the collections of ninety years ago is striking. A desiderata here is to expand the number of texts addressing women's history, the history of sexuality, lay and popular religion, the history of marginalized groups such a Jews along with more texts on Byzantine and Islamic culture.

    The sourcebook is divided into two sections. The first consists of extracts from texts. The second consists of the full texts, or links to them. This is a very lengthy compilation of resources and those interested in medieval studies are advised to puruse it. Compiled by Paul Halsall, he relies extensively on P J Geary's Readings in Medieval History, and Brian Tierney's The Middle Ages, Volume I: Sources of Medieval History. This is another excellent resource which is regularly added and well organised. 

    Documents: Germany The History of Germany: Primary Documents has been compiled by Richard Hacken, Brigham Young University. Most of the resources are located elswhere. Arranged by period, topic and names. It includes the impact of the Germans on the end of the Classical World, material on the early Germanic kingdoms, Frederick II and after, materials on the Protestant Reformation, the Weimar Republic, fascism, WWII and the Holocaust. 

    World War I :

    Medieval:Literary The University of Rochester has undertaken a number of projects assembling medieval texts focused on a literary/legendary theme. One of these is the Camelot Project. This has been designed to make available in electronic format a database of Arthurian texts, images, bibliographies, and basic information. .......The Main Menu lists Arthurian characters, symbols, and sites. You may move from any highlighted element to a sub-menu of basic information, texts, images, and a bibliography about that subject. You may also look at a menu arranged by author with most medieval texts listed under the heading "Anonymous." A third menu lists artists and their works. Not all of the submenus are complete; and in some senses the project will always be "under construction" since we will constantly be adding information, bibliographic citations, texts and images.

    The Camelot project is closely linked with Teams Middle English Texts, a joint endeavour with Medieval Institute Pubications and Western Michigan University to texts which occupy an important place in the literary and cultural canon but which have not been readily available in student editions. Some of the entries available from this page overlap with those accessible from the Camelot indexes.

    The third undertaking is The Robin Hood Project the purpose of which is similar to that of Camelot, namely, to make available in electronic format a database of texts, images, bibliographies, and basic information about the Robin Hood stories and other outlaw tales. .... You may look at a menu arranged by author with most ballads listed under the heading "Anonymous." Another menu lists artists and their works. Not all of the submenus are complete; and in some senses the project will always be "under construction" since we will constantly be adding information, bibliographic citations, texts and images. 

    National Documentary Collection: United States American Memory is the Historical Collections component of the National Digital Library project. The objective is to digitise materials currently found in public and private librariy collections. Funded by Congress, private enterprise, and philanthropic foundations it aims to expend $60 million by the year 2000.

    Although still in its early phase there are already a significant number of documents available online. With such a vast collection of different types of documents and images, and in the future probably many audio and video files as well, locating required items, or establishing what is available, is likely to be a prime concern. Although the materials already online are well organised, I found that locating particular items was not easy, and in many instances it was not clear whether the documents were currently in digital format, or whether this was just planned for the future. In addition, getting back to your starting point is not easy and I found that having tracked down particular documents (broadsheets), I was unable to establish how I had got there, and found great difficulty accessing them again.

    Consequently, it is advisable to utilise the help facilities provided. Pathfinder Searches index American Memory and Library of Congress resources by events, people, places, time, and topics. In addition, from the same page you can access collections by type: prints and photos, documents, motion pictures, and sound recordings. A separate Learn More About It page provides additional assistance targeted on particular collections. Select the collection that you are interested in and another page opens which provides additional information. Alternatively, you can use the search engine which is provided by the American Memory project:

    All Collections or limit your search to
    Photographs Documents Motion Pictures Sound Recordings 
    Type search words in the box, then click on the Search button.

    Search for variants of search words, e.g. plurals.
    Search for words exactly as entered 

    The Collections and Topics page provides a complete list of American Memory Collections. It is not possible to list them all here. They include:

    Plans for the future include the digitising of George Washington's Papers at the Library of Congress (176000 pages), those of Theordore Roosevelt (250000 items), as well as other Presidents of the United States. 

    Military: The War, Peace and Security Guide, prepared by the Information Resource Centre of the Canadian Forces College, has a very good page of resources on Military History. The resources are arranged by period (ancient, medieval, 1500-1700, 1700-1900, and 20th Century), by subject (general, aviation, technology and weapons, naval history, and military museums and institutes) and in terms of wars arranged in chronological order. The links in all categories are comprehensive. The Military Museums and Institutes page is a compilation arranged by country of organisations with a military history component accessible over the Web. This is a useful page from which to scour the Web for resources available resources relating to military history. The Military and Diplomatic Biography page provides schematic information on some salient points in the career trajectories of important military and diplomatic leaders, with the emphasis being skewed toward the twentieth century in the 1700-1996 range. Infomation is available on Contemporary Conflicts, arranged by country, relevant mailing lists and electronic journals, and resources uploaded on gopher servers.

    This is an excellent resource for both contemporary and historical military conflicts.  

    Military History: United States The Center of Military History has made available a useful collection of official documents relating to the activities of the United States Army. Most recently published CMH publicatons are being made avaialable in full-text format, and the Center is in the process of digitising the large volume of earlier publications, including the extensive collection on the Second World War. Those available already include monographs dealing with some of the most significant battle campaigns, including the volume by H M Cole on The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge, Gudalcanal, German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans 1941-1944), Cross-Channel Attack by G A Harrison, and an edited collection under the title Command Decisions, which inquires into the antecedents of various strategic decisions and battle campaigns during the Second World War (eg. Htiler's Decision on the Defense of Italy, Overlord versus the Meditteranean at the Cairo-Tehran Conference, The Decision to Withdraw to Bataan.) These publications are lengthy, but as they are in the public domain, they can also be loaded on local Web servers provided an appropriate notice on authorship copyright is displayed.

    The publications and documents available are not confined to the Second World War. Materials relating to the Korean War (Combat Actions in Korea), Operation Just Cause (Panama), Operation Desert Storm (Gulf War) the Spanish-American War, the War of Independence and the Civil War. Available also are specialised bibliographies , with a particularly extensive Bibliographies of the American War of Independence, brief essays on Oral History, conducting research into military history on the Internet, a listing of all Publications of U.S Army Center of Military History, and links to Other Web Sites of Interest to Military Historians. There is also a sizeable collection of photographs, as well as digitised images from its museum collection of paintings and other artefacts.

    This is a very useful site which is making accessible primary and secondary resources which many students and some researchers would find it more difficult to access by other means. Anyone requiring an éntre to US documents relating to military history would do well to explore the resources available from this site, which include document providing details of its collections. 

    Second World War: Audio Files This page provdies access to all the Wartime Broadcasts of Winston Churchill. The files are listed in chronological order, and are available in the DSP Group's True Speech Wav Format. Wav is an audio file format, and the True Speech version allows the user downloading it to listen to it as it downloads, rather than saving it to disk and then playing it. Of course, you will need to have a sound card installed on your PC in order to run these files. You will also need to have the application linked to the browser. It is available for downloading from this site. Although setting this up may prove difficult for some users, system administrators and help desk personnel should be able to proffer appropriate advice. This is a valuable resource which demonstrates the multi-media capabilities of the Web and Internet. Also available are his Pre- and Post-WWII Speeches.  

    Archives: Churchill The Churchill Archives Centre was established in 1973 to house the papers of Sir Winston Churchill. Their Web pages gives details of the collections which are deposited there, as well as details on exhibitions, events and new collections. 

    Second World War: World War II: The Greatest Battle in History provides some resources relating to this period. It is somewhat ambitious, the objective being to provide essays on all the major battles of the war. To date few are available,and they are rather elementary. There are, however, some other useful resources here, chiefly a chronology of the War, World War II - Day by Day and a table giving the codenames of Japanese military aircraft which, admittedly, is only likely to be of interest to a few historians and some enthusiasts. It is not clear whether the chronology is from official United States documents in the public domain. 

    General: Eighteenth Century Compiled by Jack Lynch, the Eighteenth-Century history resources page on the University of Pennslyvania server, is organised into sections on British history, American history, and European History. A useful compilation of links to resources generally located elsewhere. 

    Second World War: It is unlikely that Phil's World War II Page will provide much enlightenment to either students or resarchers on substantive historical matters. The only resource which might momentarily be useful are the World War II Casualties table, the the pages providing details on the high commands (rather loosely defined) of the combatant countries, and a chronology of Important Dates. This is, however, what David Siegel (Creating Killer Web Sites) refers to as a third generation Web site

    Reformation: Project Wittenberg is aimed at providing access to historical and classic texts on Lutheranism. Available in electronic format are Selected Works of Martin Luther 1483-1546, works of other important Lutherans, including Martin Chemnitz, Paul Gerhardt, and Johann Baier, and the Book of Concord: The Lutheran Confessions of 1529-1580

    Journal:Essays in History, a publication of the Corcoran Department of History at the University of Virginia, has online volumes dating from 1990-91. Published annually by graduate students, the focus tends to be on post-englightenment European, and American history. 

    The Historical Text Archive, is housed at Mississippi State University. It is an extensive collection of links to history resources arranged by region, topical history (African-American, Native American, Afrigeneas, genealogy, women, war, teaching, journals, and a residual general category), and resources (addresses, archives, directories, history servers, bibliographies, databases, departments, reviews, and phots and maps.) Most of the resources are located on other servers.

    Although there are links to a vast collection of resources from this site, they tend to be disproportionately focused on US history, which is partly a product of the fact that most resources on the Web have been uploaded by US educational institutions and indivduals. They are not particularly well organised, forcing the user to scroll down some very long lists of texts and icons. The headings frequently do not give an adequate description of the resources to be found on the linked pages, necessitating extensive server-hopping. 

    Documents: Manhattan Project The Atomic Bomb: Decision lists documents relating to the decison to employ atomic weapons in the war in the Pacific. These include the Minutes of the Target Committee, the Franck Report, which recommended that the weapon be demonstrated in the desert or on a habitless island, various petittions, eyewitness accounts, the official bombing order, and excerpts from Truman's radio broadcast (AU format). 

    United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Summary Report (Pacific), July 1946 [163KB in html format]

    The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was established by the Secretary of War on 3 November 1944, pursuant to a directive from the late President Roosevelt. It was established for the purpose of conducting an impartial and expert study of the effects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with air attacks on Japan and to establish a basis for evaluating air power as an instrument of military strategy, for planning the future development of the United States armed forces, and for determining future economic policies with respect to the national defense. A summary report and some 200 supporting reports containing the findings of the Survey in Germany have been published. On 15 August 1945, President Truman requested the Survey to conduct a similar study of the effects of all types of air attack in the war against Japan. 

    Second World War: Naval History/Pacific TheImperial Japanese Navy Page is one of the best Web presentations on the Second World War. Compiled by naval historian Allyn Nevitt, it provides an extensive volume of information on various aspects relating to naval war in the Pacific. The presentation is also very well designed, with either hypertext image map links to the battles. There are articles written by others on particlar battles, comparisons of the military armamenterium of the United States and Japanese navies, and very detailed information on varius classes of naval vessels. The presentation is a model of what a value-added hypertext presentation can and should be.  

    Classic Texts: Jordanes The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, translated by Charles C Mierow, in html format (189KB). 

    Second World War: Great Britain World War 2 is an attempt to provide links to World War 2 links with a British content. Unfortunately, there are very few links on the page before you get to the section Other World War 2 and Military Links, by which time you are into US Web server territory. There are links to sites where there are bibliographical resources, to war memorials and a section on British War Memories

    Texts: Classic Aemilius Paulus 229-160 BC, Plutarch. Written 75 AD, translated by John Dryden. 

    Resources: General The Index of Resources for Historians is maintained jointly by the Department of History of the University of Kansas and the Lehrstuhl für Ältere deutsche Literaturwissenschaft der Universität Regensburg. It is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the largest compilation of history related links currently available. The file is 183KB (April 20, 1997), so, if you have a slow connection at the time of downloading, expect to wait. I italicised history related for a number of reasons. First, many of the links are to resources which most practising historians, or those interested in historical subjects, would be unlikely to classify under the heading of history. Alexandria may be in Egypt, and Egypt, of course, has a history. This does not mean, however, that you will find extensive information over and above that which you would find in a Lonely Planet or Rough Guide on Egypt; in fact, probably less. This is one of those indexes, of which there are many on the Web relating to other subjects, which sets out to be comprehensive by including everything which vaguely appears to be relevant. Secondly, there is no annotation relating to resources included. Some of the files to which links are made do deal with matters which many would agree fall under the heading of history. However, they are so amateurish or schematic that they would be of little use to a ten-year-old for a primary school project. A user who has to spend a few minutes downloading a document over a slow connection which provides a history of Japan from the earliest days to the present in 1200 words is likely to feel that they have wasted their time. Moreover, many documents of this sort are not referenced, there is no author name provided, no date, and, therefore, no means of assessing the reliability of the information provided. Thirdly, in terms of other hypertext documents on the Internet, it is poorly indexed. As far as I am concerned, the sooner this type of index disappears from the Internet, the better.

    However, for the present this is one of the main compilations available, to which many other Web pages point. In the light of my previous comments, you should be discriminating in your explorations as you could spend days just moving around the Web from this source. It is organised by country, sometimes by country and topic (United States/Civil War) historical period (modern Europe-sparse, ancient Europe-nothing), organisation, and topic. If you are searching for something specific, rather than browsing around use the Find facility on the Edit menu.

    You can navigate from here to useful resources but it takes some time and requires prior familiarity with what is available on the Internet. 

    Journal: Strictly speaking the Reviews in History, which is managed through the London based Institute of Historical Research, is not a journal. Reviews of printed publications are added from time to time.

    Reviews will cover publications ranging in time from the Middle Ages to date. Reviews will be longer than usual (2,000 - 3,000 words) and will be sent in the first instance to the author who will be offered a right of reply to be circulated with the review. New information technology provides an opportunity to raise standards of reviews for historical scholarship, to draw major works of interpretation to the attention of historians and to promote scholarly debate as soon as possible after the publication of a book.

    By the end of March 1997 there were 24 reviews online, and two Review Articles. There is also a list of forthcoming reviews. It is unfortunate that interaction has been restricted to the rather restrained exchanges between reviewer and author. New information technology provides the opportunity, not only to raise standards of debate-although I assume that these are already very high, but also to widen the circle of participation. Probably the democratisation of debate will take longer to take hold in European academic cultures than it has in the United States. 

    Historians: Academic/UK The Institute of Historical Research, London, provides a listing of Teachers of History in the U.K., 1997. Amazingly, there are no hypertext links to the email addresses which are listed in the main file, nor are the email addresses of the departments provided. Moreover, there is no hypertext index, which means that you have to scroll down a 438KB document. Ah well, quaint.... You can, however, access the information by geographical areas. There is a separate listing for teachers of history at Cambridge, Oxford, and London universities, just in case anyone was worred that the whiff of elitisim was evaporating. I don't recall coming across separate listings for Ivy League colleges in the United States. 

    Discussion Lists: Mailbase/UK Mailbase is the UK based listserv service for academic discussion lists. The Institute of Historical Research, London, has compiled a list of history-related lists.  

    Monographs/Books The Intitute for Historical Research, London, has published a listing of British Books on History 1995. It is subdivided into country/period, and there is a listing by author. It is also possible to download a complete listing of all the books. It is not clear what the purpose of this listing is; presumably most historians will be concerned to survey publications relating to a specific topic/period, rather than those of published in a particular country. Generally, most historians would be better adivsed to consult a comprehensive online library index, or employ the excellent facilities provided by the Internet Bookshop or Amazon.com Books, which includes some 2.9 million titles in its database. 

    Medieval: Spain The American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain provides links to primary and secondary sources relating to the medieval history of the Iberian Peninusla. Although there are a few documents accessible through this Web service, most hisotrians will probably find it most useful for bibliographic resources. There are links to various bibliographies, to a listing of doctoral dissertations from Spanish universities post-1974, to library catalogs (eg., Institute of Medieval Mediterranean Spain, Biblioteca nacional), as well as to some manuscripts and images. 

    Documents: Primary EuroDocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe--Selected Transcriptions, Fascimiles and Translations. This is a service provided by Brigham Young University. It is arranged in three sections: Medieval and Renaissance Europe, Europe as a Supernational Region, and by country. The documents have been selected so as to shed light on key historical happenings within the respective countries (and within the broadest sense of political, economic, social and cultural history)

    Those linked to under History of the United Kingdom--Primary Documents, include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, documents relating to the origins of Parliament, the Constitution of Clarendon, Bill of Rights, Paris Treaty 1783, the Jay Treaty, and others. Some of these documents are probably more systematically and easily accessed from specialist Web collelctions such as the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Although there are some useful documents here it is a bit of a mixed bag. 

    Bibliography: Homosexuality Paul Halsall, who wrote a Masters dissertation at the University of London on Greek Homosexuality, and subsequently studied for a PhD at Fordham on Sanctity and Gender in 9th and 10th Century Byzantium, has made available An [Partially] Annotated Bibliography on Homosexuality in History. It dates from 1994 and is 103KB.  

    Second World War: Naval U-Web: The U-boat War 1939-1945 is an excellent presentation compiled by Guamondur Helgason on submarine warfare, albeit focusing exclusively on the German fleet. Its two primary sections are on the boats and the men. The U-boat Index provides information on all 1154 German submarines, plus 14 foreign built submarines which were pressed into action. The presentation provides tabulated information on every one of these vessels, including details of when commissioned, type, patrol history, tonnage sank, commander, and fate. Technical and other information is provided about each submarine type. Another section gives biographical details of submarine commanders, fifty-four as of April 21, 1997. There is a glossary of terms and a bibliography of books in English and German.

    The presentation is very well organised and referenced. Where some historians may baulk is at the suggestion that German U-boats fought hard but fair considering the situation, and the suggestion that Dönitz shouldered no responsibility for warfare waged by the Third Reich, at sea or elewhere. 

    Electronic Texts: The Oxford Text Archive currently holds about 2000 documents in electronic format.

    The Archive contains electronic versions of literary works by many major authors in Greek, Latin, English and a dozen or more other languages. It contains collections and corpora of unpublished materials prepared by field workers in linguistics. It contains electronic versions of some standard reference works. It has copies of texts and corpora prepared by individual scholars and major research projects worldwide. The total size of the Archive exceeds a gigabyte and there are over 2000 titles in its catalogue.

    OTA texts come from so many different sources and are held in many different formats. The texts also vary greatly in their accuracy and the features which have been encoded. Some have been proof read to a high standard, while others may have come straight from an optical scanner, Some have been extensively tagged with special purpose analytic codes, and others simply designed to mimic the appearance of the printed source. The Archive does not require texts to conform to any standard of formatting or accuracy.

    The texts are classified by language, English being the language in which the largest number of texts in the archive are written in. It has to be said that obtaining access to these documents is not without difficulty and you might be advised to check whether the text that you are interested in is available elsewhere on the Internet. Having chosen the language, you need to scroll down the list to establish the coding of the document. The coding determines whether you can download it from the ftp site immediately, if it is only available to Oxford University students, or whether you have to print out a form, complete it, and then fax it or send it by mail to the archive. In some instances permission will have to be obtained from the copyright holder. For further information see the document on Ordering a text from the Oxford Text Archive, and the General Information. This latter document also provides information relating to the special software that you may require to read the texts if you ever get them. If you elect to download the texts by ftp, there is no charge. If you want it to be sent on diskette, magnetic tape, or Unix data cartridge there will be a charge reflecting the costs of the medium and postage. All in all, somewhat removed from the click and access routine of the Internet. 

    Bibliographies: Warfare/Ancient This page provides local access to eleven bibliographies compiled by Hugh Elton, Trinity College, which focus on ancient warfare, covering the period between the Mycenean World and the Byzantine Empire. They include: Greek Warfare, Greek Military History, Roman Warfare, Roman Military History, Late Roman Army, Byzantine Military History/Fortifications and, General and Comparative Material. Most of the references are post-1945. Many bibliographies are further subdivided. There is also a FAQ, two syllabi, and a few links to other resources on ancient warfare on the Internet. 

    Second World War: Sino-Japanese Conflict The page arranged by the Alliance for Preserving the Truth of Sino-Japanese War, provides links to materials focusing on Japanese war crimes/attorcities perpetrated during the protracted Sino-Japanese conflict.

    Our mission is to cause the Japanese government to shoulder the responsibility and finally accept the consequences of the Japanese unmerciful assaults of its neighbors during the war, offer apology to the Chinese people, pay appropriate compensation to victims and their families, and tell the truth of history to the Japanese citizens so that its people will never again bear the burden of any unconscionable act of aggression.

    There are resources accessible dealing with war crimes, with sexual slavery, the Nanjing Massacre, medical experiments, etc. 

    Primary Text: Anglo-Saxon This digitisation of the The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has been made available electronially through The Online Medieval and Classical Library, at Berkeley. Translation by Rev. James Ingram (London, 1823), with additional readings from the translation of Dr. J.A. Giles (London, 1847). The text of this edition is based on that published as "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" (Everyman Press, London, 1912). This electronic edition was edited, proofed, and prepared by Douglas B. Killings James Ingram, the editor of the 1823 edition noted in his introduction, that

    the "Saxon Chronicle" contains the original and authentic testimony of contemporary writers to the most important transactions of our forefathers, both by sea and land, from their first arrival in this country to the year 1154. Were we to descend to particulars, it would require a volume to discuss the great variety of subjects which it embraces. Suffice it to say, that every reader will here find many interesting facts relative to our architecture, our agriculture, our coinage, our commerce, our naval and military glory, our laws, our liberty, and our religion. In this edition, also, will be found numerous specimens of Saxon poetry, never before printed, which might form the ground-work of an introductory volume to Warton's elaborate annals of English Poetry. Philosophically considered, this ancient record is the second great phenomenon in the history of mankind. For, if we except the sacred annals of the Jews, contained in the several books of the Old Testament, there is no other work extant, ancient or modern, which exhibits at one view a regular and chronological panorama of a PEOPLE, described in rapid succession by different writers, through so many ages, in their own vernacular LANGUAGE. Hence it may safely be considered, nor only as the primaeval source from which all subsequent historians of English affairs have principally derived their materials, and consequently the criterion by which they are to be judged, but also as the faithful depository of our national idiom; affording, at the same time, to the scientific investigator of the human mind a very interesting and extraordinary example of the changes incident to a language, as well as to a nation, in its progress from rudeness to refinement.

    Medieval: The Online Medieval and Classical Library, is a collection of some of the most important literary works of Classical and Medieval civilization. In addition to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, collected here are various works by Chaucer, Chretien deTroyes, and others. Works classified by title and author. 

    Documents: Second World War This file includes transcripts of:


    United States: Civil War The American Civil War, 1861-1865: World Wide Web Inforamtion Archive. An extensive volume of materials arranged under: Books, Documents; Collections; Orders of Battle; Regimental Histories; Civil War Poetry and Music. 

    Second World War: General World War II on the Web is a very extensive listing of Internet resources relating to the Second World War, some 434 as of 21 April 1997. As with all such lengthy listings, some are just brief pieces hardly worth the effort, whereas others are of very high quality. There is no alternative but to browse around. 

    Britain: Saxon/Norman The Secrets of the Norman Invasion is an extensive undertaking researched and written by Nick Austin, Chairman of Landscape Channel cable television company.

    Over the last six years I have tried to read everything important associated with Norman landings and the battle and have spent many months carrying out detailed searches of the documents contemporary with the battle. I have become increasingly alarmed at the discrepancies between the texts and the lie of the land where the landings were supposed to have taken place. In this work I attempt to explain how all these discrepancies can be reconciled only if the contextual references are applied to a landing site different from Pevensey.

    The text that follows is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the clues to the landing site contained in the contemporary source documents, whilst the second part looks at the physical evidence thrown up by surveys, aerial photographs, field walking and archaeological work.

    This is a very detailed and comprehensive survey of the evidence listed above, and runs to some 7MB of data. His conclusion were:

    that the site at Wilting Manor exactly fits the requirements of the documents for the 1066 landing and invasion site of William the Conqueror. The assumptions drawn from the Bayeux Tapestry are correct, even though historians have always claimed the pictures to be cartoon representations. Wace’s descriptions and the Carmen’s all fit as if there were never any discrepancy. There is no contradiction in either the Chronicle of Battle Abbey or the Domesday information. The Saxon Chronicles support this site at Hastings, when you take on board new thinking as to the interpretation, whilst Poitiers and Jumieges also remain open to a new interpretation regarding Hastings.

    When this information is taken with the detailed archaeological record of growth of the inhabitation of the Combe Haven valley, it is impossible not to come to the conclusion that the ancient town of Hastings was situated on it’s northern shore, in Saxon times. Its subsequent destruction has been fully recorded in the Bayeux Tapestry and although rebuilt by the same conquerors this record has been lost until now. Absolute proof of these events will only become possible when the ruins of the castle are investigated or other more tangible proof is removed from the soil.

    Medieval: General NetSERF provides a very extensive, well organised and useful compilation of links to medieval resources on the Web, and is sponsored by the Department of History at the Catholic University of America. Arranged by subject area: archaeology, art, culture, history, law, literature, etc. The NetSERF Research Center provides access to articles and papers, associations and organisations, bibliographies, conferences and seminars, teaching materials, discussion lists and Newsgroups, journals, etc.

    This is a very good site for tracking down medieval resources on the Internet, probably the most comprehensive. 

    History Departments Links to Web sites of History Departments Around the World

    Militrary: Classical and Medieval The focus of the resources linked to from the De re militari Information Server is on classicial and medieval military issues. The De re militari Association was established in 1991 at the 26th Annual Congress on Medieval Studies, held in Michigan. It has set up an email discussion list, DEREMI-L, which focuses on the academic advancement of pre-modern military affairs. The exchanges are archived, the threaded exchange files including those on: Decisive Battles of Middle Ages and Antiquity (75K), John Keegan's The History of Warfare (150K), Medieval Military Formations (9K).

    The substantial volume of resources accessible via the home page is arranged under: links to related sites (military and other), On-Line Library (primary sources, secondary sources, bibliographies, book reviews, articles and reference materials), and Additional Resources (military graphics, feedback form, awards).

    Primary Resources include Sun Tzu's On the Art of War, De Ballo Gallico, by Julius Ceaser, Herodotus' History, the History of the Peloponesian Wars by Thucydides, and many others. The subjects of the bibliographies include shipbuilding, the Roman army, Roman Limes, castles,the Crusades, the Knights of the Teutonic Order, and others. This is a very useful site for those interested in locating resources on military affairs. However, since the relatively recent reorganization I have found it somewhat difficult to get around, as it were, as it is affiliated with another site, E-HAWK and the link between them is not that clear. However, E-Hawk, which you may notice has the same domain name, has an excellent search engine which is worth using. The search can be constrained to some combination of Primary, Secondar, Site, Graphics and Reference Materials, and can be present to a number of different subjects, including US Military, British Military, World War I, World War II, Medieval, Ancient, and others. Moreover, it can be used for history in general. I found that it returned an excellent list of documents using all the constraining factors and World War II. 

    Second World War: World War II--Keeping the Memory Alive. This archive includes a variety of types of documents, ranging from bulletin board messages which include personal reminiscences and discussions about particular topics, to detailed chronologies and battle descriptions. Some of those included: German surrender documents, Military Intelligence Service report on American Prisoners of War in Germany, FDR's Pearl Harbor attack speech to Congress, Files Relevant to the Attack on Pearl Harbor (notes, messages and dispatches), submarine patrol reports, US Naval Chronology (1939-1945) letters and diaries. In sum, quite a bit of interesting information on various facets of the war. 

    Atomic Bomb: Documentation and Diagrams of the Atomic Bomb About a third of the document covers the history of the Manhattan project from Albert Einstein's initial letter to FDR in 1939. The remainder deals with technical matters: nuclear fission/fusion, the mechanism of the bomb, and diagrams of the uranium and plutonium bombs. 

    Bibliography: Anglo-Saxon Compiled by Simon Keynes, Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, initially for the guidance of students in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic at the University of Cambridge, the WWW version is the third edition. Although in the preface he claims that it is merely an informal and ephemeral document, it is well organised and certainly sufficiently comprehensive for those looking for guidance on primary and secondary sources. It is divided into eighteen sections, which include: textbooks and works of reference, primary source material, collections of papers and Anglo-Saxon scholarship. This revised edition dates from October 1995. 

    The Avalon Project, an endeavour of Yale Law School, is converting to digital format a wide range of materials relevant to a variety of disciplines, including history, law, government, economics, politics, and diplomacy. They are arranged by century, currently sub-divided into pre-18th, 18th , 19th and 20th Century Documents. The range and depth of materials is very impressive, and too vast to catalogue here. Those for the nineteenth century include a significant number on British-American diplomacy (relating to the Paris Peace Treaty (1783), the Jay Treaty (1794), the War of 1812, the Webster-Ashburton Treaty), the Monroe Doctrine, the Louisiana Purchase and Associated Documents, Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, various international treaties, and the Instructions For the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field by Francis Lieber which was in many respects the template for the Hague Conventions, which are also avilable from this server.

    Documents relating to the twentieth century, particularly to what Arnold Mayer referred to as the "thirty years war", are accessible in some depth. These include materials from the volumes on Nazi Conspiracy and Agression (the Red Set), the Nuremberg Trial Proceedings (the Blue Set), and large numbers of documents relating to the war in Europe and the Pacific. Documents on the First World War include the Balfour Declaration, the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale (1904), the Bryce Report, the League of Nations Covenant, President Wilson's Fourteen Points, the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the Treaty of Versailles, and the Treaty of Alliance between Germany and Turkey, 1914. Documents relating to more recent events, include the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Palestinian National Charter, 1988.  

    Document compiled by Dr S D Stein
    Last update 20/08/98

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